Xenophobia in South Africa
Prior to 1994 immigrants from elsewhere in Africa faced discrimination and even violence in South Africa, though much of that risk stemmed from the institutionalized racism of the time due to apartheid. Post 1994 and democratization, and contrary to expectations, the incidence of xenophobia increased. Between 2000 and March 2008 at least 67 people died in what was identified as xenophobic attacks. In May 2008 a series of riots left 62 people dead; although 21 of those killed were South African citizens. The attacks were apparently motivated by xenophobia. Racism
In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the simple belief that human populations are divided into separate races. This was often used to justify the belief that some races were inferior to others, and that differential treatment was consequently justified. Such theories are generally termed scientific racism. When the practice of treating certain groups preferentially, or denying rights or benefits to certain groups, based on racial characteristics is institutionalized, it is termed “institutional racism”. Intolerance
The constitutions of some countries contain provisions expressly forbidding the state from engaging in certain acts of religious intolerance or preference within its own borders; examples include The First Amendment of the United States Constitution - (the exception being "manifest destiny" which was manufactured by the prevailing powers as well as the church, to suspend this "right" for all North American indigenous peoples, most notably during the 1800s and well into the 1900s. This is evidenced by the brutality of the infamous boarding schools designed to "kill the Indian; save the man" by erasing all manner of religious practice, language, culture, traditions, and beliefs). Article 4 of the Basic Law of Germany, Article 44.2.1 of the Constitution of The Republic of Ireland, Article 40 of the Estonian Constitution, Article 24...
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