Quebec and Anglo-French Relations
In 1860, George-Étienne Cartier was one of the most powerful politicians in Lower Canada and a fervent protector of French Canadian nationality. But Cartier would work to bridge the gap between English and French Canada and become one of the leading Fathers of Confederation. Although a product of the establishment, Cartier joined the 1837 uprising against British authority. Cartier was a member of the Patriots - a group of mainly French and Irish Canadians opposed to arbitrary rule by the colonial administration. Cartier had fought in the battle of St. Denis. Cartier was charged with treason for his part in the Rebellion and fled to the United States. There, the rebel had a change of heart and wrote to the colonial governor, swearing his allegiance to the Queen.Cartier ran for office in 1848 at the age of 34 and was elected as a member of the Legislative Assembly of United Canada. It would mark the beginning of a long, illustrious career in politics. Cartier worked tirelessly for his constituents and French Canada; rewriting property laws; creating a modern civil code; setting up primary schools for Catholics and Protestants and modernizing the institutions of his province. But Cartier would make his biggest mark when he teamed up with a prominent Upper Canadian politician named John A. MacDonald. Together, the two men would help form a country. Quebec Conference 1864
In October 1864, delegates from across British North America gathered in Quebec City to hammer out the terms of a union. A month earlier prominent politicians from the separate colonies of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Canada had met in Charlottetown and convinced each that it was in their best interest to create a federation. The delegates at the Quebec Conference had the daunting task of spelling out the terms of Confederation. Many of the politicians at the Quebec Conference were lawyers but others included doctors, businessmen and journalists. Of the 33 delegates in Quebec City, only four were French. The most powerful politician in Lower Canada, George-Étienne Cartier, preferred to have little help speaking for his fellow French Canadians. The delegations from the Atlantic colonies included politicians from all persuasions as government members and rivals joined forces to protect their regional interests. Upper Canada's most prominent delegates included John A. MacDonald and George Brown. Most of the delegates stayed at the St. Louis Hotel, which was filled with railwaymen who took a keen interest in the negotiations. The railways had strong political ties supporting their schemes had already driven Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia deep into debt. If Confederation went through, the British government had promised to provide a large, low-cost loan, allowing the new nation to link up the separate lines in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Canada. The key concept of federalism - the idea that the central government would be granted certain powers while the provinces retained others - was molded into shape. The Quebec Conference went on for three weeks dominated by debate and proposals during the day and parties at night. MacDonald did much of the actual work on the constitution, drafting 50 of 72 resolutions. He was the only one at the conference with a background in constitutional law By the end of the Quebec Conference, a basic constitution had been drafted but not without dissent and dissatisfaction among some of the colonies. Thomas Scott
Immigrating to Canada in 1863, Scott was "a violent and boisterous" individual with Protestant and Orange sympathies. He drifted to the RED RIVER COLONY in 1869. Captured and imprisoned several times by the Métis, he was court-martialled and executed with Louis RIEL'S approval; he became an anglophone-Protestant martyr and his execution became a symbol of Métis hostility to Ontario. Manitoba...
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