Quaid E Azam

Topics: Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Karachi Pages: 20 (7441 words) Published: June 11, 2011
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
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For other uses, see Jinnah (disambiguation).
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
محمد علی جناح

1st Governor-General of Pakistan
In office
August 15, 1947 – September 11, 1948
MonarchGeorge VI
Prime MinisterLiaquat Ali Khan
Preceded byThe Earl Mountbatten of Burma (as Viceroy of India) Succeeded byKhwaja Nazimuddin
1st Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan
In office
August 11, 1947 – September 11, 1948
Preceded byNone
Succeeded byMaulvi Tamizuddin Khan
BornDecember 25, 1876
Karachi, Bombay Presidency, British India
DiedSeptember 11, 1948 (aged 71)
Karachi, Dominion of Pakistan
Political partyAll India Muslim League (1913–1947)
Other political
affiliationsIndian National Congress (1896–1913)
Spouse(s)Emibai Jinnah
Maryam Jinnah
ChildrenDina Wadia
Alma materLincoln's Inn
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu: محمد علی جناح Sindhi: محمد علي جناح Audio (help·info); December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was a 20th century lawyer, politician, statesman and the founder of Pakistan. He is popularly and officially known in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam (Urdu: قائد اعظم — "Great Leader") and Baba-e-Qaum (بابائے قوم) ("Father of the Nation"). Jinnah served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan's independence on August 14, 1947, and as Pakistan's first Governor-General from August 15, 1947 until his death on September 11, 1948. Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress initially expounding ideas of Hindu-Muslim unity and helping shape the 1916 Lucknow Pact between the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress; he also became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League. He proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India. Jinnah later advocated the two-nation theory embracing the goal of creating a separate Muslim state as per the Lahore Resolution.[8] The League won most reserved Muslim seats in the elections of 1946. After the British and Congress backed out of the Cabinet Mission Plan Jinnah called for a Direct Action Day to achieve the formation of Pakistan. This direct action[9][10] by the Muslim League and its Volunteer Corps resulted in massive rioting in Calcutta[10][11] between Muslims and Hindus.[11][12] As the Indian National Congress and Muslim League failed to reach a power sharing formula for united India, it prompted both the parties and the British to agree to independence of Pakistan and India. As the first Governor-General of Pakistan, Jinnah led efforts to lay the foundations of the new state of Pakistan, frame national policies and rehabilitate millions of Muslim refugees who had migrated from India. Jinnah died aged 71 in September 1948, just over a year after Pakistan gained independence from the British Empire. Contents [hide]

1 Early life
1.1 Years in England
1.2 Western influences on personal life
1.3 Return to India
2 Early political career
3 Fourteen points
4 Leader of the Muslim League
5 Founding of Pakistan
6 Jinnah's vision for Pakistan
7 Governor-General
8 Illness and death
9 Legacy
10 Criticism
11 Notes
12 References
13 External links
[edit]Early life

Jinnah in his youth, in traditional dress.
Jinnah was born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai (Gujarati: મુહમ્મદ અલી જિન્નાભાઈ)[13] in Wazir Mansion Karachi.[14][15][16] Sindh had earlier been conquered by the British and was subsequently grouped with other conquered territories for administrative reasons to form the Bombay Presidency of British India. Although his earliest school records state that he was born on October 20, 1875, Sarojini Naidu, the author of Jinnah's first biography, gives the date as ”December 25, 1876”. Jinnah was the first child born to Mithibai and Jinnahbhai Poonja. His father, Jinnahbhai (1857–1902), was a prosperous Gujarati merchant who hailed from...
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