Pyelonephritis

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SCHOOL OF NURSING AND ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCE
BACHELOR OF NURSING SCIENCE WITH HONOURS
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NBNC 2607
CLINICAL PRACTICE 14
SEMESTER JAUNARY/ 2012
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THE NURSING CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF
CLIENT WITH PYELONEPHRITIS

MATRICULATION NO: 880426565278001
IDENTITY CARD NO.: 880426-56-5278
TELEPHONE NO.: 0173127220
E-MAIL : zatil_qma@yahoo.com
LEARNING CENTRE: PETALING JAYA LEARNING CENTRE
TUTOR’S NAME : MISS RADHA A/P MANIAM

TABLE OF CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION

2. SIGN AND SYMPTOMS

3. INVESTIGATION

4. MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT

5. CASE STUDY
5.1 Demographic Data
5.2 History of Admission
5.3 General Health Condition
5.4 Investigations
5.5 Management and Medications

6. THE NURSING CARE

7. CONCLUSIONS

8. REFERENCES
1. INTRODUCTION

Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney and upper urinary tract that usually results from noncontiguous bacterial infection of the bladder. It is a renal disorder that involves the pyelum, pelvis or the parenchymal tissues which commonly known as pyelitis. A more severe form of the disease, on the other hand is called urosepsis. The common bacteria that usually found in patient with this disease are E-coli, staphylococcus, and streptococcus. Most kidney infections result from lower urinary tract infections, usually bladder infections. Bacteria can travel from the vagina or rectal area (anus) into the urethra and bladder. Lower urinary system infections may spread to the kidneys, causing pyelonephritis. When you have a bladder infection, the usual mechanism that prevents urine from flowing back to the kidneys does not work properly. This problem can allow infected urine to move into the kidneys and cause a kidney infection that will bring damage to the kidney. Pyelonephritis can either be acute or chronic. Pyelonephritis is a common kidney disorder. Women are four times more vulnerable to pyelonephritis than men. The explaination for this is that women have shorter urethras. Theirs is also closer to the anus which is a known source for bacteria. Pyeonephritis is cause by many different factors. The number one risk factor for this disease is an incessant bacterial infection in the bladder. It can also be triggered with an unsafe use of catheter. This can occur during the insertion of catheter without aseptic techniques and also the long term usage of it. People who are not practicing good hygiene are tends to get this infection also. For example the used of sanitary towel and nappies for adult, infection of perineum area and also can be develop during sexual intercourse. People who have blockage in the urinary tract that caused from renal calculi, tumour or stricture are also at risk of developing pyelonephritis. It will block the urine from flowing back to the kidney and cause urine stasis that allow the growth of bacteria. Another known cause of pyelonephritis occurrence is a previous surgery on the urinary tract as well as defects or abnormalities that prevent normal urine flow such as urethrovesidal reflux.

2. SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
Pyelonephritis is represented with painful urination (dysuria), severe abdominal pain which is pain in a loin (side of the abdomen or back area over the kidney) and could be tenderness in the bladder and the kidneys. Patient with this condition may also experience high grade of fever which may cause shiver, nausea and vomiting, headache and worst they will get delirium. They will be also complaint of urgency and frequency in passing urine. The urine will bw cloudy and have bloody foul smelling because of the production of white bllod cell and white cells cast. All of these symptoms usually will develop quickly, over a few hours or so. Not all of the symptoms may develop, and sometimes a kidney infection can just cause vague symptoms....
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