Psychology and Impact Personality Development

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1.Define personality.
2.Analyze how biological, situational and mental processes impact personality development. 3.Discuss social and cultural contributions to personality development. 4.Describe the major dispositional theories of personality. 5.Describe the major process theories of personality.

6.Evaluate the major personality theories.
7.Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used personality assessment techniques, validity, reliability.

Define personality.
Personality
* Is a unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel and behave * Is shaped by biological, situational, and mental processes in a sociocultural and development context * Impacts people’s cognition, motivation and behaviour

Analyze how biological, situational and mental processes impact personality development. Biological
* A person’s temperament results from 4 humours (ancient theory) * Blood from heart – sanguine cheerful
* Choler from liver- choleric angry
* Melancholer from spleen – melancholy depressed
* Phlegm from brain- phlegmatic sluggish
* Frontal lobes regulates one’s basic disposition
* Individual differences in temperament arise from balance of neurotransmitters * Adrenal gland, thyroid gland, pituitary gland and endocrine gland affect personality. * Kagan’s research on inherited basis of shyness on new borns * Excitable and inhibited infants became shy and introverted * Less excitable and bold infants became extraverted

* “push of nature in different directions”
Situational
* Environment affects us through operant and classical conditioning * (1) Physical Environment
* It includes the influence of climatic conditions of a particular area or country on man and his living. * (2) Social Environment
* The child has his birth in the society. He learns and lives there. Hence, the social environment has an important say in the personality development of the child. * E.g. one would play with an outgoing child more than an inhibited one pushes inhibited child towards shyness

* (3) Family Environment
* Child comes in contact with his parents and other family member. His likes, dislikes, stereotypes about people, expectancies of security and emotional responses all are shaped in early childhood. * The type of training and early childhood experiences play an important role in the development of personality. * Besides this, economic factors i.e., economic condition of the family and the type of relations between the parents also influence the personality of the child. * (4) Cultural Environment

* Individualism in westerners vs collectivism in Africa caused by environment * Striking difference in the universal trait of shyness caused by how each culture dealt with the child’s success and failures. * Who gets credit for good grades, gets blamed for not getting them? Childcautious, low risk taker * (5) School Environment

* In the school, the teacher substitutes the parents.
* The school poses new problems to be solved, new taboos to be accepted into the superego and new models for imitation and identification

Mental Processes
* 3 kinds of process theories:
* Psychodynamic/ psychoanalysis-
* motivation, especially unconscious motives and the influence of past experiences on out mental health * Humanistic-
* consciousness and our present, subjective reality: what we think is ipt now and how we think of ourselves in relation to others * Cognitive-
* Influence of learning, perception and social interaction on behaviour

Describe the major dispositional theories of personality.
Dispositional theories suggest temperaments, traits or types (set of personality characteristics) provide consistency to individual’s personality over time. Temperament
* Biologically based personality...
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