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MEN BEHIND SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION & DISCOVERIES

I- Introduction

“He had in fact most of the qualities that make a great scientist: an innate curiosity and perceptiveness regarding natural phenomena, insight into the heart of a problem, technical ingenuity, persistence in seeing a job through and that physical and mental toughness that is essential to the top-class investigator.” - Leonard Colebrook (1883 - 1967) Scientists are known by their discoveries, inventories, theories discovered and the things that they impart in the field of Science. Scientists contributed a lot not only in the field of Science but also to us. They taught us many things, influenced us on their inventories and discoveries, impart knowledge to us on HOW things happen. The things that they invent, contribute a lot to our daily lives. Fire for instance, this will make things easier and can conserve energy. Earth Science, field of study concerned with the planet Earth or one or more of its parts. Earth science includes the sciences used to study the lithosphere (the solid portion of Earth), the atmosphere (the gaseous envelope surrounding Earth), the hydrosphere (the ice, water, and water vapor at or near Earth’s surface), the biosphere (the zone at or near Earth’s surface that supports life), and space beyond the atmosphere. College courses in earth science cover a range of subject matter. Usually they include geology, geophysics, meteorology, climatology, oceanography, hydrology, biogeography, zoogeography, astronomy, and astrophysics. Some aspects of these subjects are covered in courses taught in junior high school and high school so that they will know the contributions of different scientists. Geology is the study of Earth, its rocks, and the changes that have occurred or are occurring in the planet. In geophysics classes students learn to apply experimental physics to the study of Earth. Students interested in climate and weather might take courses in meteorology and climatology. Meteorology is the investigation, especially over short periods, of physical processes in the lower atmosphere, where Earth’s weather is produced. Climatology is the study of the lower atmosphere over long periods, and especially of how it gets and loses energy and moisture. In oceanography courses students learn about the sea in all its aspects. Hydrology is the investigation of all aspects of water—normally fresh water—at or near Earth’s surface. Courses in biogeography deal with the distribution of plants, while courses in zoogeography look at the distribution of animals. In astronomy classes, students learn about heavenly bodies, including Earth in its role as a planet. Astrophysics is the study of the properties of stars. It can be applied to the investigation of Earth’s upper atmosphere, which has many features in common with the atmospheres of stars. All of the above sciences have further subdivisions. Geology, for example, includes five subdivisions. Petrology is the study of the composition and origin of rocks and the classification of different kinds of rocks. Stratigraphy is the study of rock layers, particularly their ages, compositions, and relationships to other rock layers. Structural geology is the study of rock deformation and mountain building. Paleontology is the study of prehistoric animal and plant life through the analysis of fossil remains. Mineralogy is the study of minerals. Earth science is a very popular course of study, mainly because of interest in environmental problems. Courses of study in earth science, physical geography, and environmental science usually cover similar subject matter.

II- Objective
To be able to know the different astronomers whose field of studies focus on Earth Science.

III- Scientists of Earth Science
1. Logan, Sir William Edmond, 1798–1875, Canadian geologist. Educated in England, he managed (1831–38) coal mines and a copper smelter in Wales. In addition to making studies of...
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