Ethanol most commonly which is produced through the fermentation of glucose by yeast cells. Fermentation is an energy-yielding process that cells carry out in the absence of oxygen. Although fermentation does not provide much usable energy for the cell, it is sufficient for yeast cells. Yeast cells produce ethanol and CO 2 as byproducts, and the ethanol produced valuable energy source. There is much interest in ethanol as an energy alternative which are nonrenewable and contribute significantly to atmospheric pollution. Ethanol also helps to address concerns about greenhouse gas emissions (mainly in the form of CO 2 ). Unlike petroleum, ethanol is ‘carbon neutral’, which means that the CO 2 released when it is burned is balanced by the uptake of CO 2 from the atmosphere by plants growing to produce more grain. In light of its advantages, world production of ethanol has increased dramatically in recent years. As grain will continue to be used for biofuel production, it is appropriate that we should seek to maximize the yield of ethanol. One way to do this is to study the effects of various factors on the rate of fermentation. Ethanol and CO 2 are produced by yeasts during fermentation is what. Although measuring ethanol would be the most direct and useful, measuring ethanol released by the yeast cells is too involved for an intro biology lab. However, CO 2 production can be measured quickly and accurately, and it affords an acceptable means of studying the relationship between cell, substrate and product in growth of yeast. Yeast cells are used to ferment glucose into ethanol. Measurements of glucose, cell concentration and carbon dioxide production are performed throughout the fermentation. Fermentation processes are used extensively in the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries. Typically, fermentations utilize microorganisms (bacteria, yeast) to produce a desired product from a substrate. Citric acid, hydrogen, and beer are...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document