Concept and basics of probability sampling methods
One of the most important issues in researches is selecting an appropriate sample. Among sampling methods, probability sample are of much importance since most statistical tests fit on to this type of sampling method. Representativeness and generalize-ability will be achieved well with probable samples from a population, although the matter of low feasibility of a probable sampling method or high cost, don’t allow us to use it and shift us to the other non-probable sampling methods. In probability sampling we give known chance to be selected to every unit of the population. We usually want to estimate some parameters of a population by a sample. These parameters estimates when we don’t observe whole population usually have some errors. Fortunately in probability sampling it is possible that we know how much our estimates are trustable or close to the parameter value from population by computing standard errors of estimates. This is not easily possible in non-probability sampling methods. Types of probability sampling methods

Simple Random Sampling
What is it?
Simple random sampling is selecting randomly some units from a known and well defined population. In this method the sampling frame should be known and all units should have same chance for being selected. How is it down? (Example)

In simple random sampling, from population of N, n units are selected randomly and the chance of being selected for all units is equal. Different methods and tools can be used for creating random numbers for sample selection. Standard random number tables and soft-wares with ability of generating random numbers like Open-Epi or Stata are available. Example: You have been asked to perform a KAP survey in a prison. The list of all 2000 prisoners has been given to you. You think that a sample of 300 would be satisfactory for your work. If you want choose 300 of them for interview randomly, you can use a random number...

... 2009). Other examples would be Survey Data’s that are fundamentally amalgamated into scopes of miscalculations, randomized sampling as well as certainty periods. Such thoughts like these are statistical by nature without us even realizing it. To further explain statistics, it is a discipline that is made up regarding certain factors that involve things like deductive reasoning; granted, Science is practically statistics in and of itself through fabricating experimentations that require data collectivity, recapitulating information for the purpose of understanding something and pulling deductions through the use of the Scientific Method (i.e. formulating theories) through data collection. Sample Data Sample data basically is a subclass of populations such as humans, animals and even objects; it often goes as far as Physical Science and the Scientific Method. Within statistics, known as survey methodology, Sample Data concerns itself in the selective method regarding the subset of inhabitants or humans from within any particular population. This is done in order to approximate the uniqueness of an entire populace like weight, gender, color, religion, job types, etc. Sample Data surveying is also extremely cost effective opposed to surveying an entire
population. In short, this form of Sample Data is, from my own opinion, nothing more than probability theories. Population Data On the other hand, Population Data is just that; a means or census...

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Life Sciences Sampling and Populations Paper
MTH/231
Life Sciences Sampling and Populations Paper
The core of biostatistics consists of the definition of a population and sampling, as they are the indicators of the fundamental concepts that are essential to understanding the statistics of the life and health sciences. The idea that a sample is illustrative of a given population, since a sample is derived from a specific, yet larger pool of information seems factually representative. Random sampling aides research in that it applies experimental design to the selection process and is the fairest means of sample collection, providing equal chance to the members of a given population being signified.
Populations
Populations, as defined by Triola and Triola (2006) are “a complete collection of all elements (scores, people, measurements and so on) to be studied. The collection is complete in the sense that it includes all the subjects to be studied. To serve as an example, all Kansan 9th graders will functionally be considered for a population. The data collected from the population are referred to as parameters and therefore are descriptive. The subjects or observations within the population are labeled with an N, or in the case of the example, figuratively, would be N=6000. The first function in this type of data collection is to have identified the target population, which has been done already....

...Probability And Non ProbabilitySampling Cultural Studies Essay
A probabilitysampling method is any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection. In order to have a random selection method, you must set up some process or procedure that assures that the different units in your population have equal probabilities of being chosen. Humans have long practiced various forms of random selection, such as picking a name out of a hat, or choosing the short straw. These days, we tend to use computers as the mechanism for generating random numbers as the basis for random selection.
Probabilitysampling methods are those in which every item in the universe has a known chance, or probability of being chosen for sample. This implies that the selection of the sample items is independent of the person making the study that is the sampling operation is controlled so objectively that the items will be chosen strictly at random.
Types of probabilitysampling
Simple Random Sampling: The simplest form of random sampling is called simple random sampling. Neither of these mechanical procedures is very feasible and, with the development of inexpensive computers there is a much easier way. Simple random sampling is simple to accomplish and...

...M227
Chapter 1 Nature of Probability and Statistics
OBJECTIVES
Demonstrate knowledge of statistical terms. Differentiate between the two branches of statistics. Identify types of data. Identify the measurement level for each variable. Identify the four basic sampling techniques. Explain the difference between an observational and an experimental study. Explain how statistics can be used and misused. Explain the importance of computers and calculators in statistics.
Statistics is the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions from data. Descriptive statistics consists of the collection, organization, summarization, and presentation of data. Inferential statistics consists of generalizing from samples to populations, performing estimations hypothesis testing, determining relationships among variables, and making predictions. (Probability, Hypothesis testing, relationships between variables, predictions) Probability is the chance of an event occurring. A population consists of all subjects that are being studied. A sample is a group of subjects selected from a population.
Variables and Types of Data
In order to gain knowledge about seemingly haphazard events, statisticians collect information for variables that describe the events. A variable is a characteristic or attribute that can assume different values. Data are the values that variables can assume. A...

...packaging and so on.
Other than that, sampling techniques provide a range of method that enable the researcher to reduce the amount of data needed, by considering only data from a subgroup rather than from all possible cases or element. In order to ensure that the data collected is representative, a few term related to the concept of sampling must be understood like population, element, censes, population frame or study population, sample,sampling unit or subject and sampling frame. The reason for using a sample are many; in research investigation involving several hundreds and even thousands of elements it would be impractical to collect data, test or examine every element. Consider the cost of using a census, the time and the human resources needed; they are prohibitive. The quality of the information obtained from a sampling study is likely to be more reliable than from a census; this is mostly because fatigue is reduced and fewer errors will result in collecting the data, especially if a large number involved. In some situations, sampling is required. In testing the chili sauce of Tesco product, it would be impossible to test the entire population because the amount is large. A variety of sampling designs are available and the choice depends on the requirements of the research, the objectives of the study and the resources available. The sampling technique...

...MULTIPHASE SAMPLING
Multiphase sampling is one of the probabilitysampling techniques that usually consist of two or more of both probability and non-probability techniques in choosing the target sample
The researchers will going to use purposive sampling in the first step
On the other hand, the researchers will use cluster sampling technique, a probabilitysampling technique to randomize the population.
Simple randomization sampling can be done using fish bowl method to get the names of the participants that will be included into two groups; the experimental group and the control group.
Between-group design of experimental research. In this design of experiments, a between-group design is an experiment that has two or more groups of subjects each being tested by a different testing factor simultaneously.
The between-group design to measure the effect of colors on the participants’ memory using a control and experimental group.
Within-Subjects Designs
A within-subjects design is an experiment in which the same group of subjects serves in more than one treatment. Note that I’m using the word "treatment" to refer to levels of the independent variable, rather than "group". It’s probably always better to use the word "treatment", as opposed to group. The term "group" can be very misleading when you are using a...

...L. M.
INTERMEDIATE MICROECONOMICS
SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
INTRODUCTION
A sample is a unit or subset of selection from a larger population that is used in studying to draw conclusions regarding the whole population. A sample is usually selected from the population because it is not easy to study the entire population at once and the cost of doing so may be very high. The sample should be the best representation of the whole population to enable accurate outcomes and accurate decisions made from the findings. Before sampling, the population should be clearly defined to ensure that the correct sample is selected for accuracy.
Sampling, therefore, is the process used in statistics in which a predetermined number of observations will be taken from a large population. It is the selection of units from a population of interest so that by studying it, we may generalize the findings back to the population from which the sample was obtained. The methodology to be used in sampling will depend on the type of analysis being performed. The methods include the following:-
1. SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING
Simple Random Sampling is obtained in such a way that each element of the population is given equal probability of being selected as a subject. The process is done in a single step with each subject selected independently of the rest of the members of the population. There...

...Population and Sampling
MTH/231
August 29, 2012
Importance of Population and Sampling
History from Political Arithmetic to Statistics
The history timeline show evidence of statistical data as early as Ancient Greece time but records show statistics in late 16th century, when it was introduced by, John Graunt, William Petty, and Pascal and later in 17th century by Gottfried Achenwall. It was an exciting time when success and discoveries raised the confidence of scientists, physicist and astronomers to think that laws of nature are not of divine intervention. As the time evolved and new discoveries were attained from political arithmetic like, mortality demographics, census data, economy, and International Statistical Congresses, they all led to changing its name to ‘statistics’.
Population
Every 10 years the country conducts a census of population to provide data that can be of use for research, business marketing, planning, surveys, and different sampling. The first U.S. census took place in 1790. What is ‘population’? The common term “population” describes people that live in a town which is located in a certain region within a certain county or state and their respective characteristic such age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, or other. The statistic term
“population” consist of all members, elements of the defined group. It includes all subjects to be studied or collecting information on for data driven...