Famous for his writings on physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology, he was an extremely learned and educated individual. He is also among the first person to set a comprehensive system of Western philosophy which include views about morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics. This system became the supporting pillar of both Islamic and Christian scholastic thought. It is even said that he was perhaps the last man who had the knowledge of all the known fields at that time. His intellectual knowledge ranged from every known field of science and arts of that era. His writing includes work in physics, chemistry, biology, zoology, botany, psychology, political theory, logic, metaphysics, history, literary theory, and rhetoric. One of his greatest achievements was formulating a finished system also known as Aristotelian syllogistic.
Plato was a classical Greek philosopher and mathematician, more so known as the student of Socrates and writer of philosophical dialogues. He founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Thales was a Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher from the Ionian city of Miletus in Asia. He predicted a solar eclipse, according to Herodotus, and was considered one of the 7 ancient Sages. Thales started the field of Greek astronomy and may have introduced geometry into Greece after traveling in Egypt. Together with Anaximander and Anaximenes, Thales formed the Milesian school of philosophy.
Mencius was a famous Chinese philosopher, born in the state of Zou. He was controversially considered the most popular Confucian, after Confucius himself. The philosophy of Mencius is distinguished by idealism and the declaration that the nature of man is basically good.
Plutarch can be considered as one of the earliest moral philosophers for his commendable effort of comparing the physical appearances and moral character. His other work, "Moralia" is a collection of his essays and speeches. Plutarch's works are great references to the Roman and Greek history and gives knowledge about the life and culture of that time. His writings had a great impact on English and French Literature and influenced some of great writers and thinkers like Shakespeare, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Francis Bacon, Cotton Mather and Robert Browning.
Augustine of Hippo
The first truly great medieval philosopher was Augustine of Hippo, a North African rhetorician and devotee of Manichaeanism who converted to Christianity under the influence of Ambrose and devoted his career to the exposition of a philosophical system that employed neoplatonic elements in support of Christian orthodoxy. The keynote of Augustine's method is "Credo ut intellegiam" ("I believe in order that I may understand"), the notion that human reason in general and philosophy in particular are useful only to those who already have faith.
Saint Thomas Aquinas
Thomas of Aquin or Aquino, was an Italian Dominican priest of the Roman Catholic Church, and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the Doctor Angelicus , Doctor Communis, or Doctor Universalis. He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology, and the father of Thomism. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy was conceived in development or refutation of his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory.
Anselm of Canterbury
the founder of scholasticism, he has been a major influence in Western theology and is famous as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God and the satisfaction theory of atonement. `For I...