Principles of Safeguarding

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Sophie Harrison
Unit 4223-010 Principles of Safeguarding and Protection
Outcome 1 Know how to recognise the signs of abuse
1.1 Define the following types of abuse

Physical abuse – contact indented to cause feelings of intimidation, injury or other physical bodily harm

Sexual abuse – knowingly causing someone to engage in an unwanted sexual act by force or threat

Emotional/psychological abuse – a person subjecting or exposing another to behaviour that can result in psychological trauma, often associated by a power imbalance such as child abuse or abuse in the workplace

Financial abuse – the misuse of a person’s funds and assets, or obtaining property and funds without the persons full consent and can involved theft of a person’s property or funds

Institutional abuse – can happen in a setting such as a care home, hospital, nursing home or school – a place where there are vulnerable people who should receive support and care. Abuse in an institution can include the following: neglect, physical abuse, verbal abuse and sexual abuse

Self neglect – an individual neglects their basic needs such as personal hygiene, feeding and not attending medical appointments. This can be as a result of a degenerative disease like dementia, a brain injury or the side effect of psychiatric medication

Neglect by others – a person/people who are supposed to provide support for those who are unable to fully support or provide for themselves but that care and support is not given or is taken away. Neglect may include lack of food or drink, medical aids (like hearing aids/walking sticks) or medical support

1.2 Identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each type of abuse

Physical abuse – the physical signs would include bruises, scratches or burn marks. The physical signs of abuse may be hard to see as the abuse could have been carried out in places that are easy to cover up under clothes etc. There could also be emotional or “invisible” signs of physical abuse. If abuse has been carried out in childhood then the child could be become aggressive and their school work could start to suffer. They may also be very shy and not want any physical contact of any kind.

As adolescents, people can turn to substance abuse to help them cope with day-to-day life. These behaviours can be carried into adult life, with adults suffering from long term depression, self-harm and suicide attempts. Studies have also shown that physical abuse in childhood can lead to post-traumatic stress disorder.

Sexual abuse – there are very likely to be physical signs but they are likely to be around the genital area and so will generally be covered up and not seen. They may not be seen until a hospital admission happens as a result of the abuse and an examination takes place. The physical signs could include bruises, scars and chafing around the genitals and bleeding from the genital area. However, there could be other physical sign, for example, there could be bruises on the victims arms if they have been grabbed or restrained or on the face if they have been hit.

Victims could begin to show signs of a sexually transmitted disease which if untreated could lead to serious illness or infertility. Girls and woman could also show signs of being pregnant. Pregnancy can have serious and potentially fatal complications on a young girl whose body may not yet be fully developed.

Mental and behavioural signs and symptoms can include sudden changes in behaviour or sexual awareness, self-harm, chronic shyness and aggression. Children’s school work can suffer and even suffer from an increase in truancy from school.

Emotional/psychological abuse – the physical signs of emotional abuse are likely to be self inflicted, i.e. the victim could resort to self harm or suicide attempts which can leave lasting scars, illness or successful suicide attempts. Self harm can be the physical manifestation of depression or anxiety...
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