II. Two Terms: 1897 – 1901
III. Garret Hobart (1897 - 1899); Theodore Roosevelt (1901) IV. Republican Party
V. Major Events
* William McKinley becomes President (1897) – Political a. McKinley ran against Democrat, William Jennings Bryan. McKinley received majority popular and electoral votes. b. William McKinley became the 25th President of the United States. * Dingley Tariff (1897) – Domestic
c. The Dingley Tariff redeemed the promises made to restore high protective tariffs. d. The Dingley Tariff replaced the Wilson-Gorman Act of 1894. * Klondike Gold Rush (1897) – Domestic
e. Gold was discovered in the Klondike River in Canada. More than 100,000 men and women set off to the Klondike River in the Yukon Territory of Canada. Word of the discovery got around very quickly. f. Gold rush fever reached a new height. Over 30 million dollars (in 1897 U.S. dollar value) worth of gold. * De Lôme Letter (1898) – Foreign Policy
g. Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, a Spanish minister to Washington, wrote a letter expressing his views on President McKinley, calling him weak. h. America was outraged that a foreign official made such a remark towards the president. De Lôme resigned and stated that the letter expressed his views, not his government’s views. * Spanish-American War begins (1898) – Foreign Policy i. The Spanish-American War was a short-lived conflict, beginning and ending in the same year, between Spain and the United States. The United States was trying to help Cuba gain independence from Spain. The war began when the United States declared war after the battleship Maine was sunk in Havana Harbor. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris. j. The United States won the war. As a result of losing, Spain lost control over the remaining overseas empire. Spain lost control over Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines Islands, Guam, and other islands. * Teller Resolution (1898) – Foreign Policy
k. The United States had no intentions on annexing Cuba or taking over Cuba in any way. The United States only wanted to help the island claim independence and leave the government and control to the island’s people. l. The United States did not annex Cuba and only remained on the island until 1902 with the Platt Amendment to the Cuban constitution. The United States gained rights to station a naval base in the Cuban harbor, Guantánamo Bay.
* Hawaiian Islands annexed (1898) – Domestic
m. The United States had begun interest in the Hawaiian Islands in the early 1800s. The United States traded with Hawaii for its sugar. A sugar tariff in the 1890s caused a depression in Hawaii. Queen Liliuokalani was overthrown and forced to renounce her thrown. Marines stormed the islands. President Cleveland unfavored the annexation of Hawaii. President McKinley signed a joint resolution and annexed Hawaii. n. The Hawaiian Islands were annexed by the United States and became territory. The Hawaiian Islands would not become the state of Hawaii until both it and Alaska were ratified in 1959. * Treaty of Paris (1898) – Foreign Policy
o. This treaty ended the Spanish-American War.
p. The United States paid Spain $20 million for the possession of the Philippines. Puerto Rico and Guam were placed under American control. * First Grandfather Clause (Louisiana) (1898) – Political q. Seven southern states enacted the clause in attempt to prevent freedmen from voting. The clause was to nullify the 15th amendment. r. The Grandfather Clause significantly reduced African American political participation and influence in the 20th century. This voting denial clause was the center of the discrimination and segregation of African Americans in the 20th century. * Open Door Policy (1899) – Foreign Policy...