13-1. Risk-averse corporate managers are not unwilling to take risks, but will require a higher return from risky investments. There must be a premium or additional compensation for risk taking. 13-2. Risk may be defined in terms of the variability of outcomes from a given investment. The greater the variability, the greater the risk. Risk may be measured in terms of the coefficient of variation, in which we divide the standard deviation (or measure of dispersion) by the mean. We also may measure risk in terms of beta, in which we determine the volatility of returns on an individual stock relative to a stock market index. 13-3. The standard deviation is an absolute measure of dispersion, while the coefficient of variation is a relative measure that allows us to relate the standard deviation to the mean. The coefficient of variation is a better measure of dispersion when we wish to consider the relative size of the standard deviation or compare two or more investments of different size. 13-4. Risk may be introduced into the capital budgeting process by requiring higher returns for risky investments. One method of achieving this is to use higher discount rates for riskier investments. This risk-adjusted discount rate approach specifies different discount rates for different risk categories as measured by the coefficient of variation or some other factor. Other methods, such as the certainty equivalent approach, may also be used. 13-5. Referring to Table 13-3, the following order would be correct: • • • • • • repair old machinery (c) new equipment (a) addition to normal product line (f) new product in related market (e) completely new market (b) new product in foreign market (d)
13-6. In order to minimize risk, the firm that is positively correlated with the economy should select the two projects that are negatively correlated with the economy. 13-7. A discount rate combines the effects of risk and time value of money in one evaluation tool. A certainty equivalent deals first with risk by converting uncertain cash flows to ‘certainty equivalents’, and then discounts at the risk free rate to consider the time value of money.
Foundations of Fin. Mgt.
8/E Cdn. • Block, Hirt, Short
13-8. Simulation is one way of dealing with the uncertainty involved in forecasting the outcomes of capital budgeting projects or other types of decisions. A Monte Carlo simulation model uses random variables for inputs. By programming the computer to randomly select inputs from probability distributions, the outcomes generated by a simulation are distributed about a mean and instead of generating one return or net present value, a range of outcomes with standard deviations are provided. 13-9. Sensitivity analysis only adjusts one variable at a time. In all likelihood variables are interdependent and if one changes the others will likely change as well. Sensitivity analysis misses this dynamism. As well sensitivity analysis does not assess risk, it only points out possible outcomes and we are left to assign probabilities. With today’s ease of spreadsheet production on the PC one can turn out endless analysis, which, without a plan will become meaningless. 13-10. Decision trees help lay out the sequence of decisions that are to be made and present a tabular or graphical comparison resembling the branches of a tree which highlights the difference between investment choices. 13-11. The firm should attempt to construct a chart showing the risk-return characteristics for every possible set of 20. By using a procedure similar to that indicated in Figure 13-11, the best risk-return trade-offs or efficient frontier can be determined. We then can decide where we wish to be along this line. 13-12. High profits alone will not necessarily lead to a high market value for common stock. To the extent large or unnecessary risks are taken, a higher discount rate and...