Poverty and Personality

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A PAPER ON POVERTY AND PERSONALITY
Presented By: Praveen S.John Web Page: http://praveenfriend.blogspot.com/ Introduction

There are many factors that influence personality. Poverty is one among them. Personality is an organized and distinctive pattern of behavior, thought, and feelings which characterizes a person’s adaptation to a various situations and which endured overtime and set persons apart from each other. Poverty is the lack of basic human needs, such as clean water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter, because of the inability to afford them. Poverty has a devastating effect upon the entire human personality.

Present paper is an attempt to portray the significant relationship between poverty and personality in Indian context. Poverty
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term poverty means the state of being very poor, the state of lacking in a particular quality.[1] Encarta encyclopedia[2] states poverty as (1). state of being poor: the state of not having enough money to take care of basic needs such as food, clothing, and housing, (2). lack: a deficiency or lack of something Poverty of emotion, (3). Infertility of soil: lack of soil fertility or nutrients.[3] Thus poverty can be said as one’s lack of sources to meet his/her survival. The concept poverty

The concept poverty is a situation that gives rise to a feeling of a discrepancy between what one has and what one “should have”. What one should have is an internal construct; hence each person’s feelings and experience of poverty is individual and unique. But the feeling of ‘powerlessness’ and ‘resourcelessness’is possessed by all poor people. Berstein Henry (1992) has identified the following dimensions of poverty.[4] They are (1) Lack of livelihood strategies, (2) inaccessibility to resources (money, land, and credit), (3) Feeling of insecurity and frustration, Inability to maintain and develop social relations with others as a consequence of lack of resources.[5] Three precepts are often used to define poverty: (1) the amount of money required by a person to subsist. (2) Life below a ‘minimum subsistence level’ and ‘living standard’ prevalent at a given time at a given place, (3) comparative state of well being of a few and the depravation and destitution of the majority in society.[6] Poverty in India

The attitudes of Indians towards the causes of poverty as measured by their place of control and socio-demographic background were studied. Culture have internal place of control and make more individualistic attributions of poverty. The independent variable of class did not appear as a predictor to the structural attribution for poverty. [7]

Below Poverty Line (India)

Below Poverty Line is an economic benchmark and poverty threshold used by the government of India to indicate economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and households in need of government assistance and aid. It is determined using various parameters which vary from state to state and within states.[8]

Causes of poverty in India

According to William A. Haviland, casteism is widespread in rural areas, and continues to segregate Dalits. Others, however, have noted the steady rise and empowerment of the Dalits through social reforms and the implementation of reservations in employment and benefits.

Caste explanations of poverty fail to account for the urban/rural divide. Using the UN definition of poverty, 65% of rural forward castes are below the poverty line.

British era

The Mughal era ended at about 1760. Jawaharlal Nehru claimed "A significant fact which stands out is that those parts of India which have been longest under British rule are the poorest today."[  The Indian economy was purposely and severely deindustrialized, especially...
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