Importance of Population and Sampling
History from Political Arithmetic to Statistics
The history timeline show evidence of statistical data as early as Ancient Greece time but records show statistics in late 16th century, when it was introduced by, John Graunt, William Petty, and Pascal and later in 17th century by Gottfried Achenwall. It was an exciting time when success and discoveries raised the confidence of scientists, physicist and astronomers to think that laws of nature are not of divine intervention. As the time evolved and new discoveries were attained from political arithmetic like, mortality demographics, census data, economy, and International Statistical Congresses, they all led to changing its name to ‘statistics’. Population

Every 10 years the country conducts a census of population to provide data that can be of use for research, business marketing, planning, surveys, and different sampling. The first U.S. census took place in 1790. What is ‘population’? The common term “population” describes people that live in a town which is located in a certain region within a certain county or state and their respective characteristic such age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, or other. The statistic term “population” consist of all members, elements of the defined group. It includes all subjects to be studied or collecting information on for data driven decisions. The basic population characteristics are birth, growth, aging, and death Sample

In the effort of obtaining statistic data from population different factors are collected, analyzed, and summarized to come to a conclusion. To collect a certain data from the population a sample is performed. A part of the population is selected sometimes randomly with the same characteristics. The characteristics sample techniques are performed to save time, are suitable for different types of data or surveys, and saves money. The essential...

...CHAPTER 12
SAMPLING MECHANICS
Sampling is an activity that involves the selection of individual people, data or things, from a target population/universe.
A population, or universe, is the entire set people data or things that is the subject of exploration.
A census involves obtaining information, not from a sample, but rather from the entire population or universe.
A sample (as opposed sampling)...

...Sampling Methodologies
Population:
Population is defined as including all items with the characteristic one wishes to understand. Because there is seldom enough time or money to gather information from everyone or everything in a population, the goal is to find a representative sample (or subset) of that population.
For example, a researcher might study the success rate of a new 'quit smoking' program on a sample...

...ANSWER:
Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of an unbiased or random subset of individual observations within a population of individuals intended to yield some knowledge about the population of concern, especially for making predictions based on the statistical inference (Ader, Mellenberg & Hand: 2008). There are quite a number of sampling methods that can be employed in research and these...

...Types of Sampling
In applications:
Probability Sampling: Simple Random Sampling, Stratified Random Sampling, Multi-Stage Sampling
* What is each and how is it done?
* How do we decide which to use?
* How do we analyze the results differently depending on the type of sampling?
Non-probability Sampling: Why don't we use non-probability sampling schemes? Two reasons:...

...Sampling and Sampling Distributions
7-1
Learning Objectives
In this chapter, you learn:
To distinguish between different sampling methods The concept of the sampling distribution To compute probabilities related to the sample mean and the sample proportion The importance of the Central Limit Theorem
7-2
Why Sample?
DCOVA
Selecting a sample is less time-consuming than selecting every item in the...

...Sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Acceptance sampling is used to determine if a production lot of material meets the governing specifications. Two advantages of sampling are that the cost is lower and data collection is faster than measuring the entire population.
Sampling...

...Purposive sampling
Purposive sampling, also known as judgmental, selective or subjective sampling, is a type of non-probability sampling technique. Non-probability sampling focuses on sampling techniques where the units that are investigated are based on the judgement of the researcher.
Purposive sampling explained
Purposive sampling represents a group of...

...SamplingSampling methods are classified as either probability or nonprobability.
In probability samples, each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being selected. Probability methods include random sampling, systematic sampling, and stratified sampling.
In nonprobability sampling, members are selected from the population in some non random manner. These...

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