Importance of Population and Sampling
History from Political Arithmetic to Statistics
The history timeline show evidence of statistical data as early as Ancient Greece time but records show statistics in late 16th century, when it was introduced by, John Graunt, William Petty, and Pascal and later in 17th century by Gottfried Achenwall. It was an exciting time when success and discoveries raised the confidence of scientists, physicist and astronomers to think that laws of nature are not of divine intervention. As the time evolved and new discoveries were attained from political arithmetic like, mortality demographics, census data, economy, and International Statistical Congresses, they all led to changing its name to ‘statistics’. Population

Every 10 years the country conducts a census of population to provide data that can be of use for research, business marketing, planning, surveys, and different sampling. The first U.S. census took place in 1790. What is ‘population’? The common term “population” describes people that live in a town which is located in a certain region within a certain county or state and their respective characteristic such age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, or other. The statistic term “population” consist of all members, elements of the defined group. It includes all subjects to be studied or collecting information on for data driven decisions. The basic population characteristics are birth, growth, aging, and death Sample

In the effort of obtaining statistic data from population different factors are collected, analyzed, and summarized to come to a conclusion. To collect a certain data from the population a sample is performed. A part of the population is selected sometimes randomly with the same characteristics. The characteristics sample techniques are performed to save time, are suitable for different types of data or surveys, and saves money. The essential...

...SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS
|6.1 POPULATION AND SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION |
|6.1.1 Population Distribution |
Suppose there are only five students in an advanced statistics class and the midterm scores of these five students are:...

...Sampling Methodologies
Population:
Population is defined as including all items with the characteristic one wishes to understand. Because there is seldom enough time or money to gather information from everyone or everything in a population, the goal is to find a representative sample (or subset) of that population.
For example, a researcher might study the success rate of a new 'quit smoking' program on a sample...

...Sciences Sampling and Populations Paper
MTH/231
Life Sciences Sampling and Populations Paper
The core of biostatistics consists of the definition of a population and sampling, as they are the indicators of the fundamental concepts that are essential to understanding the statistics of the life and health sciences. The idea that a sample is illustrative of a given population, since a sample is...

...Sampling Methods
Why Sample the Population?
The physical impossibility of checking all items in the population.
The cost of studying all the items in a population.
The sample results are usually adequate.
Contacting the whole population would often be time-consuming.
The destructive nature of certain tests.
Probability Sampling
A probability sample is a sample selected such that each item...

...CHAPTER 12
SAMPLING MECHANICS
Sampling is an activity that involves the selection of individual people, data or things, from a target population/universe.
A population, or universe, is the entire set people data or things that is the subject of exploration.
A census involves obtaining information, not from a sample, but rather from the entire population or universe.
A sample (as opposed sampling)...

...Chapter 7
Sampling and Sampling Distributions
6-1
Learning Objectives
In this chapter, you learn:
The concept of the sampling distribution
To compute probabilities related to the sample
mean and the sample proportion
The importance of the Central Limit Theorem
To distinguish between different survey
sampling methods
To evaluate survey worthiness and survey errors
7-2
Reasons for Drawing a Sample
Selecting a sample is...

...Sampling
School of Nursing
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Sept., 16, 05; 6:30p.m. Y302
2014/9/27
1
Outline
Introduction
Select a Random Sample
Types of Sampling
• Systematic Sampling
• Stratified Sampling
• Cluster Sampling
Power Analysis
Type I and Type II Errors
Determine Sample Size – Examples
2014/9/27
2
Introduction
Sample
In statistics we always assume that a
sample is...

...Estimating plant population density: Time costs and sampling
efficiencies for different sized and shaped quadrats
Jennifer K. CARAH 1,3 (corresponding author)
jkcarah@sfsu.edu
415-333-6092 home
415-244-1725 mobile
415-405-0306 fax
Lucas C. BOHNETT1,2
lucasbohnett@hotmail.com
Anastasia M. CHAVEZ 1,2
anastasia.chavez@gmail.com
Dr. Edward F. CONNOR1
efc@sfsu.edu
1
2
Department of Biology
Department of Mathematics
San Francisco State University...

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