Pompeii and Herculaneum Unit 1

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HSC Unit 1: Pompeii and Herculaneum

By the end of this unit, you will know about:
• The early stages of occupation of P and H
• A historical overview of P and H before the eruption • The physical environment (setting, natural features, resources) of P and H • Plans and streetscapes of both cities
• What kind of sources are available (written and archeological) on P and H • The limitations and reliability of the sources, and how they have been interpreted • The evidence produced by the sources for:

- the eruption
- the economy
- social structure
- local and political life
- everyday life
- public buildings
- private buildings
- influence of Greek and Egyptian cultures
- religion

The changing methods and contributions of 19th and 20th century archaeologists to our understanding of P and H - how new research and technologies have changed interpretations of P and H - issues of conservation and reconstruction – the impacts of tourism - ethical issues – the study and display of human remains

link to collectors pompeii podcast

KEY TERMS FOR ANCIENT HISTORY – POMPEII AND HERCULANEUM

Ampitheatre - (Amphi from the Greek: around/both/both kinds) oval arena

Atrium - (Atri – from the Latin: entrance hall, chamber, central room, as in atrium (heart) ) open central courtyard or hall of a house

Basilica - public building that contained the law courts and business activities

Calderium – ( Caldi from the Latin: heat, warm, Arium from the Latin: a place for) Hot bathroom

Comitium - building for town meetings

Curia Chamber – (Curia from the Latin: court) building where the city council met

Forum - main commercial area of the city

Freedman/Woman – slaves who had been given their freedom

Frigidarium - (frig/frigo from the Latin: cold, frost) cold bathroom

Fulleries - shops where fabrics were washed and bleached

Hoplomachus - (Hoplon from the Greek: weapon, Machy/machia/machist from the Greek: battle, war, fight) heavily armoured gladiator; known as Samnite before Augustus’ rule

Hypocaust - (Hypo from the Greek: under/below, caustum from the Latin:heat/fire) system of flues beneath the floor that distributed heat from a furnace

Insula/e - (Insula from the Latin: Island) cheap apartment house/blocks of housing, shops, restaurants and factories

Myrmillo - gladiator with Gallic weapons (Gladius from the Latin: straight blade sword)

Palaestra - open exercise area in the public baths

Pyroclastic surge - a surge of rock and lava caused by the explosion of a volcanic eruption (Pyro from the Greek: fire, burn Clast from the Greek: break, crush/break into pieces)

Sacellum - (Sac from the Latin: holy, sacred) chapel

Tabularium - (tabula from the Latin: a board/plank/writing tablet/document) building where government records were stored

Thermopolia - (thermo from the Greek: hot/heat/warm) bar or tavern

Volcanologist- (Volcanus from the Latin: Volcan the god of fire, husband of Venus -ologist from the Greek: ‘one who studies’) person who studies Volcanoes

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Thermopolia in Herculaneum

Top of Form
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Daily Life: Origins
[pic]A view of Pompeii
From small town to multicultural city on the move
Pompeii is now world-famous, but this important historic site began as a small coastal settlement which covered about 10 hectares. As in many modern cities, the shape of the older town is still visible within the grid of later construction. It is thought that the original settlers of the town were the Oscans, a native pre-historic people of Campania. By the sixth century BC, however, the town had expanded to more than six times its original size and was dominated by the Etruscans, who had expanded south from...
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