Instructions: Attach this sheet to your answers to the following short essay questions and mail your answer to the center for grading purposes. Only one copy is needed, but keep a safety copy for yourself. Each correct answer is worth 25% of your score. Essay Questions:
1. Trace the origin of political science. (5 pts.)
Political science began as early as 14th century B.C. when Aristotle (384-322) wrote his book entitled “Politics” which is the systematic treaties on political affairs. His book was written about 335-332 B.C. which made him won the title of “Father of Political Science”. Political science comes from the term “political” which is derived from the Greek word “polis” which means “city “and “science” comes from the Latin term “scire”. Plato and Aristotle were two political scientists in the ancient Greece who continuously quest for the systematic analysis on the political system of the city-state. 2. Give the pros and cons of giving political science the status of a science. (5 pts.) There are reasons why political science was contradicted as a science because of the following reasons: Political science has no fixed criteria or natural laws to observe and evaluate its findings. The raw materials of this science are human beings in which human beings are unpredictable hence; there were no scientific basis for prediction. Lastly, there is no consensus of opinion among political scientist as to their methods and conclusions. In spite of these contradictions, there are certain reasons to consider political science as a science: Political science is within purview of science in its truest terminology. The term science comes from the Latin word “scire” which means systematic body of knowledge. The most favorable reason is that modern political scientist uses scientific methods of research, analysis and deduction which made political science as a true science. 3. What are the four elements of a state and briefly describe each one. (2 pts. each) The four elements of the state are people, territory, government and sovereignty. People are the first and most important element of the state because people are considered as raw materials of political science so there can be no state without people. The second element of the state is territory which is the geographical area under the jurisdiction over which the state exercises the full control. The third element is government, which is created by people and obeyed by people, an organization enforcing its authority with different types like republic, monarchy and dictatorship. The fourth element is sovereignty which is a complete authority to rule over the people in the state and the freedom from foreign control. This has two types; internal and external sovereignty. 4. What are the four main theories of state origin, give their exponents (philosophers), and say something about their meaning and criticism. (3 pts. each) The four main theories of the state origin are the divine theory, social contract theory, force theory and natural theory. Divine theory is the oldest theory of how the state originated and was almost widely accepted in ancient and medieval times. This is believed that political authority emanates from God. The ruler derives his power from God so as God’s agent on earth; the ruler must be obeyed by people. The exponents of this theory are Thomas Aquinas, Marsiglo of Padua Dante, Bishop Bossuet and Sir Robert Fillmer. The divine theory has declined due to the rise of democracy where there is a separation between the church and the state. There are many criticisms of this theory such as; it is dangerous theory because it implies that the rulers are responsible to God alone for their acts are not to the people. Another is; it seems inapplicable to the subject of the origin of the state for religion pertains to matters of faith and not on politics. Second theory of state origin is Social Contract Theory which was...