HISTORY OF PIPELINE TRANSPORT3 - 5
ASPECT OF TECHNOLOGY6 - 7
OWNERSHIP8 - 10
APPENDIXES13 - 14
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. Most commonly, used to send liquid and gases, and the pneumatic tube that transport solid capsules using compressed air are also used it. In other words, any chemical stable substance can be sent through a pipeline.
Besides that, pipeline is a unique method of transport. The `way’ in transportation by the pipeline is important as an artificial way, and it usually constructed by a private user for his own particular purpose. For examples, today the crude oil and natural gas pipelines was owned and operated by oil and gas companies like Petronas.
In general, pipelines can be classified in three categories depending on it purpose. First is gathering pipelines which is a group of smaller interconnected pipelines that forming a complex network with the purpose of bringing crude oil or natural gas from several nearby wells to a treatment plant or processing facility. In this type, the pipelines are usually short which is about a couple of hundred meters and with a small diameters. A sub- sea pipelines for collecting product from deep water production platforms are also considered as a gathering systems. Second is a transportation pipelines. Mainly, long pipes with a large diameters can moving the products likes oil, gas and refined products between the cities, countries and even the continents. These transportation networks is include a several compressor stations in lines and pump stations for crude and multiproducts pipelines. And last but not least, is distribution pipelines which is a composed of several interconnected pipelines with a small diameters, which is used to take the products and to the final consumer. The pipelines at the terminals for distributing the products to tank and storage facilities are included in this types.
HISTORY OF PIPELINE TRANSPORT
In Malaysia, Petronas was not the first company to extract oil or gas. It was the Royal Dutch Shell who had began the oil exploration in Sarawak, then a British colony at the end of the 19th century. In 1910, the first oil well was drilled in Miri, Sarawak. This became the first oil producing well known as the Grand Old Lady. Shell was still the only oil company in the area in 1963, when the Federation of Malaya, having achieved independence from Britain six years before, united with Sarawak and Sabah, both on the island of Borneo, and became Malaysia. The authorities in the two new states retained their links with Royal Dutch Shell, which brought Malaysia's first offshore oil field on stream in 1968. Meanwhile, the federal government turned to Esso, Continental Oil, and Mobil, licensing exploration off the state of Terengganu, in the Malay Peninsula, the most populous region and the focus of federal power. By 1974, only Esso was still in the area. It made its first discoveries of natural gas in that year and then rapidly made Terengganu as a bigger producer of oil than either Sarawak or Sabah. By 1974, Malaysia's output of crude oil stood is at about 81,000 barrels per day (12,900 m3/d). After negotiations lasting from 1977 to 1982, Petronas had concluded the contracts with Tokyo Electric Power and Tokyo Gas for the sale and delivery of LNG through to the year 2003. Malaysia LNG was to send almost the entire output of its Bintulu gas fields to Japan, under these contracts and another one, signed in 1990, to supply Saibu Gas of Fukuoka, in southwestern Japan, for 20 years from 1993. However, the depletion policy was being undermined by external circumstances. Through the year in early 1980s, a worldwide of oil glut, which OPEC proved unable...