Phytoremediation of Petroleum Based Hydrocarbon Soils

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  • Topic: Petroleum, Bioremediation, Soil contamination
  • Pages : 9 (2917 words )
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  • Published : November 17, 2012
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Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbon

April 2012

Kaleigh Monroe
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

for

Dr. Cassel Gardner
SWS 3211- Soils and Water Conservation

*

* Table of Contents

Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………………………………… 2 Outline………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 Introduction to Phytoremediation………………………………………………………………………. 4 About Petroleum Hydrocarbons………………………………………………………………………... 6 Phytoremediation as a solution to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination…………………………… 8 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………… 10 Glossary……………………………………………………………………………………………….... 12 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………. 13 *

Introduction to Phytoremediation
What is Phytoremediation?
How does Phytoremediation work?
Various mechanisms
Potential of Phytoremediation as a remediation technology
Limitations
Benefits
About Petroleum Hydrocarbon
What is Petroleum Hydrocarbon?
Sources and uses
How does it get into the environment?
Risks Posed by Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Phytoremediation as a solution to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination Considerations
Depth of Pollution
Method
Phytostimulation
Plant Selection
Natural Revegetation using native plants
2. Establishment of Non-native plants
Operations and Maintenance
Cost
Fertilizer
Irrigation
Aeration
Harvest and Disposal
Conclusion

Introduction to Phytoremediation
Phytoremediation is a word formed from the Greek prefix “phyto” meaning plant, and the Latin suffix “remedium” meaning to clean or restore (Mcgraw hill). It is a bioremediation process which uses various types of plants to remove, transfer, stabilize, or even destroy contaminants in the soil and groundwater. Plants can be used to remove many kinds of pollution such as explosives, metals, pesticides, radioactive material and oil. Plants have the potential to prevent groundwater, wind and rain from carrying pollutants away to other locations. Phytoremediation works the best when there is low to medium pollution because high pollutants can kill the plants or damage their root systems. When plants take in water and nutrients through their roots they also remove pollutants from the contaminated soil, groundwater or stream. When the chemical pollutants are inside of the plant they can be stored in the roots, stems or leaves, converted into less harmful chemicals by the plant, or changed into gasses that the plant releases into the air as it transpires (Environmental Protection Agency). There are several different mechanisms of Phytoremediation. When plants release natural substances through their roots and supply nutrients to microorganisms in the soil that enhance biological degradation it is called Rhizosphere biodegradation. Rhizosphere biodegradation is one of the most popular mechanisms involved in Petroleum Hydrocarbon removal (Mcgraw hill). Phyto-stabilization is a process when chemical compounds produced by the plant cause the contaminants to be immobilized rather than degraded. Phyto-accumulation (also called phyto-extraction) is a method that is mainly used to counteract pollution by metals, the plant absorb pollutants in the soil along with water and nutrients and it ends up in their shoots and leaves (The Center for Public Environmental Oversight ). The plants are then harvested and either taken to have the metal they contain recycled or they are disposed of carefully so they do not re-introduce the pollutants into the environment. Rhizofiltration is a hydroponic system for treating water streams, it is similar to phyto-accumulation but the plants are raised in a greenhouse with their roots submerged in water. This system can be used for ex-situ groundwater treatment, where groundwater is pumped to the surface to irrigate the plants. Plants raised in a greenhouse utilize artificial soil such as sand with vermiculite or perlite. They are grown until the roots are...
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