Physiological Methods

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You have an exam at 8 A.M. and it is now 8 P.M. the night before. You have studied well. The best thing to do now is

4. Sleep all night

Xavier was given a list of words as part of a memory test that included: dog, pail, and hate. Later, he recalled these words as: "log, whale, and late." Xavier's errors in recall suggest that he had encoded the original word list

Phonemically

Karina is given a list of words to memorize, and she forms a mental image of each word on the list. Calvin is given the same list of words, and he thinks of words that rhyme with each of the words on the list. Based on the research that has focused on the process of encoding, you should expect that on a memory test

Karina will recall more words than Calvin

During a party, Michael was talking to a friend about the symbolism involved in a recent movie. Michael attributed the explanation of the symbolism to a prominent movie critic, when actually he heard it from his roommate. This example illustrates which of the following phenomena?

source-monitoring error

Kiana was given a list of words as part of a memory test that included: "dog, pail, and hate." Later, she recalled these words as: "dig, paint, and hard." Kiana's errors in recall suggest that she had encoded the original word list

Structurally

Knowing that a particular person has been arrested and accused of the crime in question can influence the recollections of eyewitnesses. This finding can best be explained by

hindsight bias

Taryn was given a list of words as part of a memory test that included: "dog, pail, and hate." Later, she recalled these words as: "pup, bucket, and loathe." Taryn's errors in recall suggest that she had encoded the original word list

Semantically

If you're thinking about your plans for the weekend while you are reading your psychology textbook, the reason you will probably forget most of what you read is that you've used __________ encoding, which is...
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