Physical Education for Students with Special Needs

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Lesson Plan
Adapted Equipment
The piece of adapted equipment I helped build is multi-purposeful. Although it can be used in a game of adapted basketball as a ball ramp which can guide a ball into a hoop, for my project I am focusing on its use as an adapted bowling piece of equipment. As an adapted game of bowling this piece of equipment can quickly be transformed into a ball ramp with attached bumpers to guide the ball to the pins. The ball has also been adapted. Instead of using a heavy bowling ball, I have chosen a bright red, large bouncy ball. This type of ball is safer, easier to handle, and its bright red color will make it easy for student with visual impairments to track the ball. Regular bowling pins have been replaced by several empty two-liter soda bottles with bells inside of them. They are also brightly colored to help those with visual impairments locate them more easily. The fact that they are empty is key since the adapted bowling ball is light weight so therefore would not be as effective in knocking down a heavy pin as it would a light pin. The point of the bells inside the soda bottles is so that a student who has visual impairments knocks it down they will be able to hear the bells jingle. This adapted game of bowling was designed particularly for special needs children, 5 years and older, who are ambulatory. However, it is possible for a child in a wheelchair to also use this equipment if they have the ability to kick or extend their arm downward far enough to reach the ball. The ramp, which is made entirely out of PVC pipes, is meant to sit on the floor with the bowling pins set up at the end of the ramps track along the floor. Then, depending on the skills the child playing the game has, he or she can either push the ball down the ramp or lightly kick it down. The motor areas for which the equipment can be used include gross motor skills such as pushing or kicking using the arms or legs as well as hand-eye coordination. Additionally, depending on how tall the student is, if they decide to use there arms to push the ball down the ramp then they will also have to engage their torso by bending down. This type of movement will also require some degree of balance. This adapted game of bowling will enable students who may not have the necessary athletic skills, coordination, balance, or strength to play a game of regular bowling to participate in the sport of knocking pins over with a rolling ball. This adapted bowling games require minimal strength since all the components of the game are lightweight and the ball only requires a light tap or kick to get it rolling. If a student does not have the strength, balance or coordination to kick the ball lightly then he or she can use their arms to push it instead. So students can use whichever method is best for them to push the ball. Just like in a regular game of bowling, students will be divided into teams and will earn points for every pin they knock down with the winning team having the most points.

 
Introduction of Activity
 
           The primary motor areas utilized in this lesson will be that of gross motor skills, balance and hand-eye coordination.  The students need to focus on their abilities to integrate their hand or leg movements and their visual fields to make contact with the ball by pushing or kicking the ball. The students will also have to practice motor control in order to gauge the amount of force necessary to put the ball in motion without sending it flying off the ramp.  

Practice Drill/Warm-Up
 
            At the beginning of class, before the start of the bowling activity I will play a fun and familiar song to help get my students ready and in the mood to play. During the songs I would take attendance by saying each students name out loud to make them feel important and excited. Then I would begin with some basic stretches such as bending down and reaching for your toes, balancing on one leg (for ambulatory children), and...
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