Phylosophy

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Muratbek Dadabaev
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1.Rene Descrates adalah bapak filsafat modern yang dianggap telah memberikan suatu fondasi kepastian bagi pengembangan Ilmu Pengetahuan. Pertanyaan: Apakah yang saudara ketahui tentang pokok-pokok pikiran Logika Baru yang diawali oleh Rene Descartes? Bagaimana pengaruh Logika Descartes bagi pengembangan Ilmu Pengetahuan? It is no exaggeration to say that Descartes, philosopher and scientist, was the most influential thinker in the XVII century. As already noted, in the 40's Descartes widely spread in the Netherlands universities. After his death, the influence of Cartesianism efforts - not only in France, but also in other countries in Western Europe, despite the fact that 1663 all the works of the philosopher have been made to the papal "Index Banned Books, "and in 1671 by the decree of Louis XIV Descartes was allowed to teach in schools of France. In accordance with various parties Cartesianism his influence was seen in the works various philosophers. Descartes was a rationalist approach to systematic development book of his followers and friends Pascal Arnaud and Nicolas "Logic or art of thinking "(1662: the so-called" Logic of Port-Royal "). The logic close to the mathematics, science is treated here as the acquisition of new truths of the real nature of the study. Rejecting the subtleties traditional formal logic, the authors of "The Logic of Port-Royal" saw home purpose logic in formulating strict judgment. The greatest influence of Descartes demonstrated in this work in the introduction of the method of teaching both the important branch of logic. The four rules of the method of Descartes were interpreted here the methods of analysis and synthesis. The first of them is treated as a method of opening new regulations by careful observation and dissection of things and phenomena, and thus a simple and clear truth, absolutely than the uncertainty and darkness of scholastic universals. More However, the value of the authors of "Logic of Port-Royal 'attached to synthetic (or theoretical) method, by which the transition from the most general and simple to the less common and more complex. In the context of the doctrine of method formulated rules for definitions, axioms, and proofs. If in fact the scientific side of Cartesianism during the life of its founder has won many supporters in Utrecht, Leiden and other universities in the Netherlands, the general spirit of his rationalism and regulations metaphysics had an impact on some Protestant theologians. In French Jansenists circles - the Semi Protestant movement in Catholicism Rethink on the idea of ​​Augustine - Cartesianism also became influential doctrine. In such a way Descartes left a bright trace in the history of philosophical thought and has had a serious impact on the development of science era new time.

2.Dalam dialektika ilmu pengetahuan dikatakan bahwa: “dalam perkembangan ilmu dewasa ini sebenarnya tidak ada ilmu yang dapat mandiri secara penuh, melainkan saling membutuhkan satu sama lain. Tidak ada ilmu yg mampu menjelaskan suatu realitas secara utuh, karenanya dibutuhkan kerjasama antar ilmu, namun bukan hal yang mudah. Setiap ilmu berbeda karena objek formalnya memang berbeda, sehingga menyulitkan untuk mengkoordinasikan cara-cara kerja yang memang berbeda satu sama lain”. Pertanyaan: bagaimana kerjasama antar ilmu pengetahuan dan pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan di Indonesia dapat dijelaskan dalam kaitan dengan tiga bentuk kerjasama antar ilmu van Melsen (1985), yakni: multidisipliner, interdisipliner, dan integrasi?

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3. Dikatakan bahwa filsafat tidak statis & tidak berdiri sendiri, namun berkembang, dinamis serta terbuka untuk menjadi landasan, menyapa & berdialog dengan berbagai disiplin ilmu pengetahuan dalam mengarahkan kembali kepada berpikir kritis kefilsafatan. Pertanyaan: Jelaskan bagaimana filsafat dapat berperan dalam pengembangan...
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