Phonetics and Vocal Folds

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Chapter 1 Phonetics: A “Sound” Science
* Phonetics as a field of study
* Historical phonetics- involves the study of sound changes in words * There is a constant mutation over time in the pronunciation of words in all languages. * Between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries, there was a marked evolution in the pronunciation of English long vowels; this change in vowel pronunciation is known as the “Great Vowel Shift” * Physiological phonetics- involves the study of the function of the individual speech organs during the process of speaking * Acoustic phonetics- Focuses on the differences in the frequency, intensity and duration of the various consonants and vowels * Differences in the acoustic attributes of speech sounds allow listeners to be able to perceive how sounds, syllables, and words differ from one another * Perceptual phonetics- is the study of a listeners psychoacoustic response (perception) of speech sounds in terms of loudness, pitch, perceived length, and quality * Experimental phonetics- entails the laboratory study of physiological, acoustic, and perceptual phonetics * Laboratory equipment is used to measure the various attributes of the speech organs during speech production as well as to measure the acoustic characteristics of speech * The scope of clinical phonetics involves the study and transcription of speech sound disorders * Disordered speech can be found in children or adults who may have experienced a hearing impairment, fluency disorder, head trauma, stroke, phonological disorder * Another “sound” science related to phonetics is phonology * Phonology is the systematic organization of speech sounds in the production of language * Differences between phonetics and phonology is phonetics focuses on the study of speech sounds, their acoustic and perceptual characteristics, and how they are produced by the speech organs. Phonology focuses on the linguistic (phonological) rules that are used to specify the manner in which speech sounds are organized and combined into meaningful units, which are then combined to form syllables, words, and sentences * Phonological rules, along with syntactic/morphological rules (for grammar), semantic rules (for utterance meaning), and pragmatic rules (for language use), are the major rule systems used in production of language * International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)- designed to represent the sounds of words, not their spellings * A note on pronunciation and dialect

* A dialect is a variation of language based on geographical area as well as social and ethnic group membership * Dialect not only involves pronunciation of words, but also grammar (syntax) and vocabulary usage

Chapter 2 Phonetic Transcription of English
* The difference between spelling and sound
* Phonetic alphabet- an alphabet that contains a separate letter for each individual sound in a language * Grapheme- a printed alphabet letter used in the representation of an allograph * Allograph- different letter sequences or patterns that represent the same sound * Digraph- pair of letters that represent one sound; the letters may be the same or different * Morphemes

* Smallest unit of language capable of carrying meaning * Free morphemes- Morphemes that stand alone and still carry meaning * Bound morphemes- they are bound to other words and carry no meaning when they stand alone * Phonemes

* Phoneme- a speech sound that is capable of differentiating morphemes, and there is capable of distinguishing meaning * A change in a single phoneme always will change the identity and meaning of the morpheme * IPA is a phonetic alphabet, each symbol represents one specific speech sound or phoneme * Minimal pairs or minimal contrasts- words that vary by only one...
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