Phonetics and Phonology.

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PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY: ENG 221 {LECTURER: MRS FALEKE V.O}

200 LEVEL COURSE CONTENT

(i) Introducing Phonetics
a. What is Phonetics?
b. What is Phonology?
c. The Three Branches of Phonetics
d. Types of Phonology
e. Aspects of Phonology
f. Phonetics and Phonology any Relationship

(ii) The Organs of Speech and Human Speech Mechanism
a. The Organs of Speech
b. The Human Speech
c. The human Speech Mechanism
d. Description of the English Consonant
e. Description of the Vowel Sounds

(iii) Supra-segmental
a. The Syllable
b. The English Stress
c. Intonation
d. Rhythm and Rhyme

WHAT IS PHONOLOGY?
Phonology is the study of the sound system of a language; it concerns itself to the ways in which various languages organize or structure different sounds. These speech sounds are used to convey meaning, as sound system cannot be fully understood unless they are studied in a wider linguistics context. A language learner therefore, for example, needs to master the introduction and perception of the sounds of a given language. The leaner must also learn when to use these sounds. For instance the leaner of English must not only learn the sound /k/ and /s/ which are transcribed between phonetic brackets, but must also learn that the /k/ of opaque changes to /s/ when the suffix is added to form the word opacity. The change of /k/ to /s/ is as much a part of the sound system of English as is the fact that English contains the sounds /k/, /g/, /s/, and /z/. Different scholars have defined phonology thus: Comri (2007) says Phonology is concerned not with the physical properties of sounds but rather with how they function in a particular language. Yule (2002) views Phonology “as essentially the description of the systems and pattern of speech sounds in a language”. Tomori (2004) sees it “as the study of the significant units of sounds that are capable of distinguishing one word from another in a language”. Raoch (1997) further explains that “when we talk about phonemes function in language and the relationships among the different phonemes in other words, we study the abstract side of the sounds of language – we are studying a related but different subject that we call phonology’. Ekundare (1993) also sees “phonology as the study of the properties of the sound system of language which speakers have mastered and internalized by the time they are competent users of it”. The goal of phonology is then, to study the properties of the sound system which speakers must learn or internalised in order to use their language for the purpose of communication. Thus, when approaching the sound system of a language, it is necessary to study not only the physical properties of the attested sounds (that is, how they are made and what their acoustic correlates are) but also the grammatical properties of these sounds. From above, it then means that every language has sounds or sound system. The sounds in this system are not without their properties and it becomes important for every language learner to learn, master and internalized them. Again the term phonology functionally deals with abstract side of the sounds of a particular language. This involves sound patterning and structuring. Phonology is the organization of speech sounds to convey meaning in a particular language. It is an aspect of the study and description of language which studies sounds pattern that occurs in the given language.

TYPES OF PHONOLOGY:
Two types of phonology have been identified:
(i) Diachronic Phonology: This deals with historical phonology which examines and constructs theories about the changes that occur in speech and sound system over a period of time. For example, one may decide to trace the phonology of Old English to Middle English and Modern English considering their similarities, differences and changes that had occurred over time. (ii) Synchronic Phonology: This is also known as descriptive phonology,...
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