Within this paper Sally a 23 year old woman with a dog phobia will be discussed. Also, how operant and classical conditioning as well as observational learning are a factor in developing Sally’s phobia will be covered. Additionally, how extinction and tenets of cognitive theory can help Sally overcome her dog phobia will be explained. A phobia is an abnormal, vigorous, unreasonable persistent dread or terror that causes anxiety. “Approximately 40 million American adults ages 18 and older, or about 18.1 percent of people in this age group in a given year, have an anxiety disorder (The National Institute of Mental Health, 2013)”. A person has the capability to make a fear out of anything; dog, open spaces, water, elevators, and tight spaces. Persons with a fears or phobias go to the ends of the earth to avoid any alleged risk that is larger more so in their thoughts than physical time. When confronted with the base of their fear, the person will sustain massive anguish that can hinder everyday tasks; fear can seldom lead to complete panic. Furthermore, for a number of individuals the simple thought of their fear is tremendously upsetting. Fears can be a wearying thing. The defeat of efficiency and productivity at the hands of a person’s phobia can be massive. However, a comprehension of psychology can offer a person the authority to development past anxiety that accompanies their phobia “Phobias are not uncommon; many people suffer from anxiety due to fear of something. Phobias are the group mental conditions known as anxiety disorders. This grouping likewise includes, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and general anxiety disorder”( Fritscher, 2009).. Fear of dogs is known as cynophobia this is a tremendously shared fear or phobia. Cynophobia or fear of dogs can be overwhelming, preventive the persons interaction with person’s whom own dogs and limiting her regular goings-on. A fear or phobia is a...
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