The pre-Socratic philosophers
Connections to others
The condensation and rarefaction of air.
The soul is air. Hold us together
So air Encompass’s the world
Similar to Thales because he believed there’s a tangible source for everything Anaximander
Believed our world was a multitude of worlds that evolved and dissolved into something infinite or boundless The primary elements neither water nor any other so called element, but a nature different from them and infinite Contemporary of Thales
Thales states, without reason why water is the cause of all things, Anaximander attempts to answer the question of how the world developed out of the primary element. Pythagoras
-Numbers combine and make things
-Transmigration of soul lead to soul culture
- Soul culture in favor of purifying the soul through things such as observing silence, music and using math. - Soul principle order and life in body.
-Soul was real person
-Soul is harmony
-Contradicted Zeno because he said that points on a line can be measured. Heraclitus
Everything is in a constant state of flux
Nature & Human condition are connected.
Soul as fiery in nature which is generated out of other substances just as fire is, has limited dimensions. Drunkenness causes it to be most. Virtuous life keeps it dry & intelligent -Disagreed with Parmenides because of change.
Change is impossible. Nothing can become what it already is.
-Disagreed with Heraclitus
Change is an illusion
Parmenides had reduced becoming to non-being and to illusion. Attempted to prove just what exactly (Connection to others) is becoming.
4 elements: Earth, Air, Water, Fire.
Love and Strife
Being is not born nor does it die.
It is eternal.
Root of things
Like Parmenides he admits that being is not born nor does it die because it is eternal. Unlike Parmenides he says that being is quadruple.
Breaks up the being of Parmenides into an infinity of particles, each of them indivisible. Called them atoms
Ice, rock, wood, air
Water changes to liquid, solid, and vapors
Water preserves identity through all the transformations of bodies.
Contemporary of Anaximander
Had underlying urstoff just as Anaximenes.
Nous (mind, intelligence)
Quality of particles over another is the reason for the qualitative difference of things Nous
Parmenides’ being is made up of an infinite number of particles, homogeneous but quantitatively different.
Cosmos - the world or universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious system
Chaos - a state of utter confusion or disorder; a total lack of organization or order
Logos - the Greek word for “reason”
Pantheism - a theory that says that a supreme being is everywhere and that everything in the universe contains the spirit of this being
Atheism - a theory that rejects the idea of the existence of a supreme being
Cosmology - conclusion drawn from, and study of, contingent facts about the world or universe
Paradox - a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth
Monism - a metaphysical theory that says that reality consists of one all-encompassing thing that all particular things are expressions of this one thing
Materialism - a metaphysical theory, developed by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, that says that everything, including a person’s thoughts, consciousness, and personality, is composed of matter
Primal Matrix – also known as the indeterminate. Containing within itself all the known elements. The Matrix is quantitatively unlimited. It is sometimes called “the boundless” or “unlimited”.
The Basic Stuff
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