Introduction to Petroleum Technology
NUR KHASILAH BT ABDORAHMAN
CHAPTER 1 REVIEW – How The Earth Was Formed
So, let we start with the origin of universe. it has been stated in The Big Bang theory. Over 13.5 billions years ago, a gigantic explosion produce energy and fundamental particle that created the universe. This mean that all the things that we see today such as rock, animal, plant, water was created during that time. First, quark is formed which is proton, neutron or electron. When all the quark was combined, it formed atom. Atom is then will form molecule and will produce solid, liquid and gases. Some quark are turn to hydrogen and some are turn to helium. Gravitational attraction between hydrogen and helium will create cloud of gas. This cloud, as they began to die, it will spin, contracting and forming stars. The stars will mature then explode to become supernova.
About 4.55 billions years ago, there was a formation of solar system. It was started with the cloud that rotates more rapidly as it contract. Then the cloud flatten to pancake-like form and change to ring form. Then, planets form at their present distance from the sun. this make up new solar system that comprising sun and planets throughout the universe. In the beginning year of earth, it was divided into two differentiation. First was early differentiation which is layers that produced in the first 100 millions years ago. The dense liquid of Fe-Ni was sank to the core and less dense remainder forms rocky mantle. During late differentiation, there was a partial melting of mantle that made ‘light’ crust and release gas such as Oxygen and Nitrogen, for atmosphere. There was 6 parts in earth structure, first, which is the deepest one, solid inner core which contain Fe-Ni metal. Second layer is liquid outer core, which contain Fe-Ni metal. Third, rocky mantel, contain Mg-Fe silicate mineral. Forth, rocky crust, containing mainly silicate mineral. Fifth, hydrosphere which is ocean water. Then lastly, atmosphere, the outermost layer that containing air.
Mantel and crust is the part that we will explore. There was two region which is lithosphere and Asthenosphere. Lithosphere is not solid nor liquid. And it was upper part mantel. And asthemosphere is part of mantel itself.
Earth is dynamics. This is due to internal heat and external heat. Source of internal heat is came from heat left over from huge amount of energy released during formation of earth. Energy release is from radioactive decay of mineral which is isotope. The large unstable atom become more stable by emitting radiation. While the source of external heat was from solar energy. The heat cause the producing of rock and will be explain in rock cycle later on. Basically, it start with igneous rock(basalt), then sedimentary rock(sand stone) lastly metamorphic rock(marble).
During rock cycle, there was three classification of rock which is igneous rock, sedimentary rock and metamorphic rock. But we will focus on sedimentary rock because it is where we can found oil. There is two type of sedimentary rock, carbonate rock(limestone) and silicate rock(sandstone). Carbonate rock was actually made up of shell and coral that end up became sediment. Most of oil is found in lime stone. We search for sedimentary rock because the presence of hydrocarbon in it. Besides, we also can find mineral in this rock. For example, gypsum, phosphate solid, gold, silver and copper. Therefore, sedimentary rock is kind of important to us.
Mostly, sedimentary rock was comprising of siltstone, mudstone and shale. Sandstone, mudstone and shale is the one that contain oil. In United Arab Emirates(UAE), most of oil is found in limestone.
Sedimentary can be form chemically(precipitation) or physically(deposition) or both. Cementation is other chemical path of sedimentary rock can be form. Clastic deposition occurs when energy(velocity) decrease below velocity needed to move grain...
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