PSY 409(SEMINAR IN RESEARCH INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANISATION PSYCHOLOGY)
Personnel selection is defined as the process used to hire (or, less commonly, promote) individuals. The term can apply to all aspects of the process, recruitment, selection, hiring, acculturation etc. The most common meaning focuses on the selection of workers. In this respect, selected prospects are separated from rejected applicants with the intention of choosing the person who will be the most successful and make the most valuable contributions to the organization. Tests designed to determine an individual's aptitude for a particular position, company or industry may be referred to as personnel assessment tools. Such tests can aid those charged with hiring personnel in both selecting individuals for hire and in placing new hires in the appropriate positions.
A brief history of personnel selection
Selection into organizations has as ancient a history as organizations themselves. Chinese civil servant exams, which were established in AD 605, may be the first documented modern selection tests. As a scientific and scholarly field, personnel selection owes much to psychometric theory and the art of integrating selection systems falls to human resource professionals.
Methods of personnel selection
It takes a good deal of knowledge and judgment to properly use assessment tools to make effective employment-related decisions. Many assessment tools and procedures require specialized training, education, or experience to administer and interpret correctly. These requirements vary widely, depending on the specific instruments being used. Check with the test publisher to determine whether you and your staff meet these requirements. To ensure that test users have the necessary qualifications, some test publishers and distributors require proof of qualifications before they will release certain tests. There are various ways in which the industrial and organisational psychologist use in the selection of personnel. Some of which are listed below; 1. Mental and physical ability tests
2. Achievement tests
3. Biodata inventories
4. Employment interviews
5. Personality inventories
6. Honesty and integrity measures
7. Education and experience requirements (including licensing and certification) 8. Recommendations and reference checks
9. Assessment centers
10. Medical examinations
11. Drug and alcohol tests
1. Mental and physical ability tests
When properly applied, ability tests are among the most useful and valid tools available for predicting success in jobs and training across a wide variety of occupations. Ability tests are most commonly used for entry-level jobs, and for applicants without professional training or advanced degrees. Mental ability tests are generally used to measure the ability to learn and perform particular job responsibilities. Examples of some mental abilities are verbal, quantitative, and spatial abilities. Physical ability tests usually encompass abilities such as strength, endurance, and flexibility. * General ability tests typically measure one or more broad mental abilities, such as verbal, mathematical, and reasoning skills. These skills are fundamental to success in many different kinds of jobs, especially where cognitive activities such as reading, computing, analyzing, or communicating are involved. * Specific ability tests include measures of distinct physical and mental abilities, such as reaction time, written comprehension, mathematical reasoning, and mechanical ability, that are important for many jobs and occupations. For example, good mechanical ability may be important for success in auto mechanic and engineering jobs; physical endurance may be critical for fire fighting jobs. Although mental ability tests are valid predictors of performance in many jobs, use of such tests to make employment decisions often...