Personality Development Study Guide

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Behaviorism- Skinner, Watson, Pavlov/ Occums Razor- simplest explanation is the most plausible. Law of Effect- Any theory that makes the fewest new assumptions usually provides correct answer. B.F. Skinner- focus to explaining personality is in factual/descriptive terms.-based on observable /measurable behaviors.-adoption of experimental method to study behaviors. BASIC PREMISE of behaviorism-personality shaped by experience. Result of conditioned stimulus & reinforced behaviors Classical Conditioning- associate 2 stimuli & response (little Albert) Operant conditioning- associate behavior & consequence. behaviors rewarded increased; behaviors punished decrease. behavior operates to produce consequence. Any response that increases a behavior. Reinforcement A. Primary- innately satisfying B. Secondary- influenced through association with primary reinforcement. Reinforcement schedules- A.Continuous- desired response rewarded everytime.when reward stops extinction occurs quickly. B. Partial-intermittent, real life behaviors, provide greater persistence for behavior resistant to extinction Law of Effect- repeat behaviors that are rewarded (reinforced), void behaviors that are punished. Shaping- gradually guide behaviors towards desired goal. Successive approximation- moving closer to desired goal. Cognitive theory- 1. clinical model- Albert Ellis& Arin Beck -thinking/internal mental sentences-more focused on describing changing2. Social/Cognitive Model- Bandura 3. developmental model 3. piaget/vygotsky Clinical Approaches- Ellis- Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (rebt)- Beck cognitive theory (ct)- David Burns- cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) Ellis-Focus on identifying changing patterns of irrational beliefs-Functional versus dysfunctional thinking GOAL- reduce negative emotions and behaviors (self-defeating)Basic Premise 1.People upset themselves by beliefs they hold 2. Upset is caused by situation and thinking 3. No magic in change SIMPLE BUT NOT EASY a+b=cantecedur. activating event + belief (irrational/rational) = consequence (emotional behavioral)-*negative emotional and behavioral responses result of negative self-talk -based on cognitive distortions.*absolutist thinking-should, ought, must-Add catastrophizing/ awfoliting thinking-take desires and turn them into demands a+b=c+d=e -dispute irrational beliefs -e new more effective belief REBT (process)1. Identify thoughts 2. dispute thought 3. replace irrational with rational thoughts 4. practice new rational sentences Social/ Cognitive Model-Albert Bandura-Bobo Doll*-Social Learning/ Observational Learning- Originates In Behaviorism-Too simplistic Learning (behaviorists definition)-Change in behavior as the result of experience-(bandura's definition)- change in mental structures that create capacity to demonstrate different behaviors learning need not occur through direct experience.-humans can learn from others examples and experiences through observation & imitation Bandura's four steps of modeling1. Attention-need to be aware of a situation (behavior)-not distracted-identify as significant-prior learning or other's direction can focus attention-more likely to imitate -model is similar to us-attractive and/or prestigious-competent2. Retention-use mental imagery to store behaviors-"Mind's eye"-imagine myself engaged in that behavior3. Reproduction-translate image into actual behavior.-rewards and punishments or reinforcement4. Motivation-motivated in imitate a. past reinforcements b. promised reinforcements c. vicarious reinforcements (model reinforced) 3. Developmental Models A. Jean Piaget-Theory based on observation of children-Focus on "Making Meaning" out of experience-Primary focus of development- trying to make sense out of experience-To Find order, structure, predictability in existence-A drive towards Equilibrium***-State of cognitive balance between experience & understanding of world-When they don't match seek to...
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