Personality Lab report – Notes:

Definition of the Big 5 traits and the 3 uses of music – introduction

In the abstract, be as specific as you can about the hypotheses. You might like to list the ones supported and the ones not supported. "The relationship between x and y, and a and b, but not between c and d, were significant"

The procedure is very straightforward. 2 questionnaires (different classes probably did these in different orders) and data entered online

Provide brief overview of each trait in he introduction

In regards to the link between agreeableness and music, there is next to nothing in research, therefore, formulate your own hypothesis, and make sure it is defended in some way or another.

There were 240 items on the version of the NEO0PI-R that we used.

All 3 campuses included in the study.

In reference to the neo- pi-r - Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham (2007) cited Costa and McCrae (1992) as finding that the scale has high validity and reliability

How scores were calculated for the NEO-PI-R – brief description – goes in the methods section.

Design section not required

if there is less than 5% shared variance between two variables, this shared variance can't explain the result, and therefore the result is not a key contributor, and other factors must be taken into consideration.

"there was a *strong* positive correlation between X and Y (rs = .69, n = 123, p < .001)" with the appropriate word chosen according to the following: *  .00-.19 “very weak”
*  .20-.39 “weak”
*  .40-.59 “moderate”
*  .60-.79 “strong”
 .80-1.0 “very strong”

since normality was violated, we have to do a Spearman's correlation as it does not assume normality (and other assumptions). SPSS will automatically convert your data to ordinal so no need to worry about the fact that our original data was not ordinal.

Could use either Pearsons or Spearmans - you are correct that Pearsons would usually be the preferred option. However, if normality is violated you are also correct that we are recommended to use non-parametric equivalents. BUT, in this case we have a large N, so we could assume that this protects us from some of the problems created by assumption violations. Which option is right, is actually tricky to answer (and statisticians will happily argue with each other about it... believe me, I know), but for our purposes it's probably not worth worrying about too much. As long as you justify which way you did the test, it doesn't matter to me which you chose. 

Correlations are not all-or-nothing. You can have a significant, weak, correlation

In SPSS data, 1 = femal and 2 = male.

Music is ubiquitous in our social lives.

Music is everywhere in our lives.

to what extent is personality reflected in a persons choice of music or in the purposes for which they use music.

Music helps shape and define the social and physical environment. It captures and creates the social moos and adds to the other environmental stimuli (Rentfrow and Gosling, 2003)

Music can be used as a form of coping, to stimulate certain emotions/reactons; to create an image to others for group inclusion/exclusion (Rentfrow and Gosling, 2003)

Chamorro – Premuzic and Furnham (2007), identified three uses of music:

Factor 1: Emotional Use
Measures the extent to which an individual will use music for emotional regulation. Eg inducing positive or negative moods.

Factor 2: Cognitive Use
measures the extent that an individual listens to music in an intellectual sense by analyzing the structure of the composition as played by different instruments or focusing on the performers. Eg judging quality of performance.

Factor 3: Social/Background

measures the extent that an individual listents to music while driving, working, exercising, socialising or performing other tasks.

Domains of the NEO PI-R


People high in neuroticism are emotionally active....
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