In today's here today, gone tomorrow society there are not many people that take the time to create a personal budget. Many feel that they don't really need it; while others just don't want to restrict their spending. With this in mind, it's no wonder that personal bankruptcies are at such an all time high. The advent of credit cards and the wide spread availability of credit itself has allowed people to purchase what they want, when they want, with little to no regard of whether they can really afford it. There is small hope that these patterns of behavior will change in favor of living on a budget until the masses realize all of the advantages of a personal budget. Living on a budget relieves a great deal of financially related stress. It's always fun to spend money but when the bill comes due, the fun is long gone. A lot of times when this happens people resort to what my grandmother use to call robbing Peter to pay Paul.' In other words, they resort to using one credit card to pay on another card. Other times people choose to get what's called a "payday advance loan." A payday advance loan is given by a credit company for a specific amount that will be automatically taken from your next paycheck. While this will put money in your pocket for the short term, in the end you will still be in the same hole. Either of these situations causes a viscous cycle of debt that can be extremely difficult to recover from. A budget helps to ensure that debt is prevented and money will be available throughout the entire month. A budget also helps an individual regularly place money into a savings plan by freeing up money that they did not know they had. This allows for a comfortable retirement when that stage of life rolls around. It will also provide a financial cushion to cover any emergency situations that may arise. Goal achievements are also an advantage of personal budgeting. Everyone has financial goals that they would like to reach in the future. Whether it's...

...CAPITAL BUDGETING
The process in which a business determines whether projects such as building a new plant or investing in a long-term venture are worth pursuing. Oftentimes, a prospective project's lifetime cash inflows and outflows are assessed in order to determine whether the returns generated meet a sufficient target benchmark.
Also known as "investment appraisal."
Generating investment project proposals consistent with the firm’s strategic objectives;
Estimating after-tax incremental operating cash flows for the investment projects;
Evaluating project incremental cash flows;
Selecting projects based on a value-maximizing acceptance criterion; and
Continually reevaluating implemented investment projects.
* Since CASH is central to all decisions of the firm, the expected benefits to be received from the project is expressed in terms of Cash Flows and not income flows. Cash flows should be measured on an incremental, after-tax basis.
* a) include all cash flows that occur during the life of the project
* b) consider the time value of money
* c) incorporate the required rate of return on the project
* The minimum rate of return needed to induce investors or companies to invest.
* The minimum acceptable rate of return at a given level of risk. Different investors have different reasons for choosing their required returns. Normally, it is determined by a person's or institution's cost of capital.
* For...

...
Capital Budgeting Analysis Project
MBA 612
The General Capital Budgeting Process and how it is implemented within Organizations
The general capital budgeting process is the tool by which an organization determines its choice of investments through analyzing and evaluating its cash in and out flows. The capital budget process is vital to the organizations mere existence. Capital budgeting decisions can mean the difference between the company’s survival and its extinction, especially in today’s volatile global economic environment. The goal of survival for an organization is to create the maximum amount of shareholder wealth. To achieve positive shareholder wealth, the organization must maximize its share price through creating a positive net present value. The organization cannot achieve shareholder wealth without the use and understanding of a solid capital budget process (Megginson, Smart, Graham, 2010).
Capital budgeting analysis is really a test to see if the benefits (cash inflows) are large enough to repay the company for three things the cost of the asset, the cost of financing the asset (interest) and a rate of return (Investopedia, n.d.).
The capital budget process involves three basic steps:
1) Identifying potential investments. This is the “idea” phase. Ideas can come from anywhere and in various...

...Capital Budgeting
Part I
PV= FV / (1+i)^y PV= present value, FV= future value, i= discount rate, and y= time.
1a) If the discount rate is 0%, what is the projects net present value?
Year Cash Flow Discount Rate Discounted Cash Flow
0 -$400,000 0% -$400,000
1 $100,000 0% $100,000
2 $120,000 0% $120,000
3 $850,000 0% $850,000
Answer: The projects net present value is $670,000
If the discount rate is 2%, what is the projects net present value?
Year Cash Flow Discount Rate Discounted Cash Flow
0 -$400,000 2% -$400,000
1 $100,000 2% $98,039
2 $120,000 2% $115,340
3 $850,000 2% $800,974
Answer: The projects net present value is $614,353.45
If the discount rate is 6%, what is the projects net present value?
Year Cash Flow Discount Rate Discounted Cash Flow
0 -$400,000 6% -$400,000
1 $100,000 6% $94,340
2 $120,000 6% $106,800
3 $850,000 6% $713,676
Answer: The projects net present value is $514,815.59
If the discount rate is 11%, what is the projects net present value?
Year Cash Flow Discount Rate Discounted Cash Flow
0 -$400,000 11% -$400,000
1 $100,000 11% $90,090
2 $120,000 11% $97,395
3 $850,000 11% $621,513
Answer: The projects net present value is $408,997.46
With a cost of Capital of 5%, what is this project's...

...
Capital Budgeting
QRB/501
July 25, 2013
On this paper the reader will be able to find the rationale in the analysis of a specific capital budgeting case study. Definitions along with explanations related to capital budgeting such as Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV) will be provided and debriefed. It is extremely relevant to mention that capital budgeting allows the companies to analyze one or more projects to decide eventually which project or piece of equipment would be most profitable or suitable (economically), according to the needs and the capacities the company has.
Before entering into the analysis a little further and into the company chosen let us define what Net Present Value really is. According to Business Dictionary (2011) the definition of NPV is “The difference between the present value of the future cash flows from an investment and the amount of investment. Present value of the expected cash flows is computed by discounting them at the required rate of return.” “NPV is considered as one of the two discounted cash flow techniques, the other one is the Internal Rate of Return”. There are different types of net present values such as the negative net present value (worse return), the positive present value (better return), and the zero net present value that basically means that the original amount is repaid at the rate established. We mentioned earlier...

...Business
AC543
Sean DAmico
August 20, 2012
Abstract
This paper will give a comparison between the various preferred capital budgeting evaluation techniques in the corporate business setting. There will be a recommendation given for the Guillermo Furniture Company based on the results of one or more evaluation techniques, which in turn will help direct the financial health of the organization.
Corporations are continually striving to improve the financial health of its organization and one strategic way many corporations are doing that is through capital budgeting. Capital budgeting involves choices. The choices revolve around projects that will add value to the organization. The projects can include acquiring land, purchasing a truck, or replacing old equipment. Many times, corporations are encouraged to undertake projects that will increase its profitability. The challenge is to find the appropriate evaluation method to bring the intended profitability into reality.
The three preferred evaluation methods that many corporations use are net present value, internal rate of return, and payback period. Many corporations often calculate capital budgeting solutions using all three methods. However, each method often produces contradictory results. The net present value method is the most accurate valuation approach to capital budgeting issues (smallbusiness). If a corporation can...

...CAPITAL BUDGETING
PRINCIPLES
Capital budgeting is the process of evaluating and implementing a firm’s investment opportunities, by virtue of properly identifying such investments that are likely to enhance a firm’s competitive advantage and increase shareholder wealth. A typical capital budgeting decision involves a large up-front investment followed by a series of smaller cash inflows. A typical capital budgeting process is focused around following basic principles:
1) Decisions are based on potential cash flows and not accounting income: If a project is undertaken and subsequently some relevant incremental cash flows are to flow out by virtue of such a capital budgeting plan, the relevant cash flows are to be considered as a part of the budgeting process, and the decisions on capital budgeting have to take such incremental cash flows into consideration, before properly evaluating such a capital budgeting plan. However, the sunk costs, which can’t be avoided, even by overlooking or avoiding such a capital budgeting plan, should not be considered for acceptance or rejection of the project.
However, while finalizing a capital budgeting decision, one needs to examine the impact of implementing such a plan on the cash flows of related activities undertaken by the same group, which has some synergy with the proposal for which the...

...WHAT IS CAPITAL BUDGETING?
1.
2.
Decision making process of selecting and evaluating longterm investments. Examples include the decision to replace
equipment, to develop new product, or to build new shop at
a new branch of operations.
It is very crucial for companies to make the right decisions
because these projects require a huge amount of cash
outflow committed for many years. A right decision will
increase the firm’s value as well as the shareholders’ wealth.
A wrong decision will result in a drop in firm value as well
as shareholders’ wealth.
Capital Budgeting
1
Capital Budgeting Process
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Generating long-term investment proposals consistent with a
firm’s long-term objectives
Estimating the relevant after-tax incremental cash flows for
these project proposals
Evaluating these cash flows
Selecting the project that will maximize shareholders’
wealth
Reevaluating these projects from time to time for control
purposes and carrying out post-audits for completed
projects.
Capital Budgeting
2
TYPES OF PROJECTS
1.
Independent projects – are projects whose cash flows are
not affected by the acceptance or nonacceptance of other
projects. If a firm has unlimited funds to invest, all the
independent projects that meet its minimum investment
criteria can be implemented. For example, a firm with
unlimited funds may be faced with 3 acceptable independent...

...Question a
What is capital budgeting? Are there any similarities between a firm’s capital budgeting decisions and an individual’s investment decisions?
Capital budgeting is the process of analyzing potential additions to fixed assets. Capital budgeting is very important to firm’s future because of the fixed asset investment decisions chart a company’s course for the future. The firm’s capital budgeting process is very much same as those of individual’s investment decisions. There are some steps involved. First, estimate the cash flows such as interest and maturity value or dividends in the case of bonds and stocks, operating cash flows in the case of capital projects. Second is to assess the riskiness of the cash flows. Next, determine the appropriate discount rate, based on the riskiness of the cash flows and the general level of interest rates. This is called project’s required rate of return or cost of capital in capital budgeting. Then, find the PV of expected cash flows and the asset’s rate of return. If the PV of the inflows is greater than PV of outflows (NPV is positive), or if the calculated rate of return (IRR) is higher than the project cost of capital, accept the project.
Question b
What is the difference between independent and mutually exclusive projects? Between normal and non-normal projects?
Independent projects mean a company can select one or both of the projects...