Persian Gulf

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf is an expansion of the Indian Ocean, situated in western Asia which separate Iran from the Arabian Peninsula. The Persian Gulf’s wide is 55 kilometers and 989 kilometers-long inland sea. The Persian Gulf States include Iran (Persia), United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Qatar on a peninsula off the Saudi coast, Bahrain on an island, and Kuwait and Iraq in the northwest (Reynolds, 1993). The Persian Gulf has wide coral reefs, and numerous pearl oysters, and plenty of fishing grounds. The largest amount of crude oil in world exists in Persian Gulf, and because of that, has become the most strategic waterways in the world (Sheppard 1993), about 15 million people live and work along the Gulf coastline. Because of the war and high level of water evaporation, extended drilling and oil extraction, pollution of the water has extremely enhanced, and the Persian Gulf is now one of the susceptible marine ecosystems (SOMER 2003). In this essay we will be examined the quality of management and environmental impacts of specific issues in Persian Gulf, in three separate parts.

Ballast Water
One of the issues in the Persian Gulf that is well managed is related to the regulation regarding to the Ballast water discharge. The only multi-national organization in the Gulf is Regional organization for the protection of marine environment (ROPME, 1999), ROPME Sea Area is the largest receiver of ballast water from vessels, every year more than 50,000 ships meet this zone and over one billion tons are discharged in the Persian Gulf. Tanker and cargo ships traffic produces a considerable quantity of ballast water evacuation in this area (UNEP, 1999).The Steering Committee Meeting after two days of comprehensive controversies identified the necessity for the confirmation of the binding ballast water management provisions to consider the matter of detrimental aquatic organisms and pathogens in vessels’ ballast Water and sediments in streak with the ROPME Council decisions in recognizing ballast water management as the most suitable method to ameliorate the zonal marine environment. According to the decision of the Steering Committee (provisions of the regulation B-4 of the Ballast Water Management Convention), ships entering from beyond the RSA must undertake ballast water exchange on in water more than 200 nautical miles from the nearest drought and the depth of water should be at least 200 meters. This regulation came into the force 1 November 2009, and applies for all vessels, regardless of flag. Vessels should have a confirmed Ballast Water Management Plan on board In compliance with the IMO standards, and they should hold Ballast Water Record Book. Ballast water impacts can totally change the ecosystem, because usually contains a vast of biological substances, containing plants, animals, viruses, and bacteria. These matters in most of the cases contains illness creating organisms in sewage polluted water, non-native, vexation, odd types which could bring vast ecological and economic disadvantage to the sea related area and ecosystems, and when eaten by human can cause death, for example cholera epidemics look to be directly related to the ballast water. The most significant impact of the ballast water is invasive species, which has recognized as second greatest threat to global bio-diversity according to the United Nations Environment Programme.The influences of bringing new animal and plants can be almost unsearchable, or also contrary they are able to overcome and dislocate native biological Societies. Unfortunately damage to environment from discharging ballast water is often irreversible. Oil Spill

The largest oil spills happened in Persian Gulf during the Gulf War in 1991 (MEPA, 1993), and because of that known as the Gulf War oil spill. The poor managed of this significant issue obviously will appear in the terms of oil removal importance. Research’s on the various impacts of this spill have...
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