Penguin Dictionary

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THE PENGUIN DICTIONARY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Graham Evans and Jeffrey Newnham

PENGUIN BOOKS Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England Penguin Putnam Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, USA Penguin Books Australia Ltd, 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia Penguin Books Canada Ltd, 10 Alcorn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4V 3B2 Penguin Books India (P) Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi - 110 017, India Penguin Books (NZ) Ltd, Cnr Rosedale and Airborne Roads, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England www.penguin.com First published in Penguin Books 1998 11 Copyright © Graham Evans and Jeffrey Newnham, 1908 All rights reserved The moral right of the authors has been asserted Set in 9/1o.spt Monotype Bembo Typeset by Rowland Phototypesetting Ltd, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk Printed in England by Clays Ltd, St Ives plc Except in the United States of America, this book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser

Selected Entries with Live Links
Actor Administered Territory Agent Structure Anarchy ASEAN Authority Autonomy Balance of Power Bipolar Boundary Buffer State Capability Civil War Clash of Civilizations Colonialism Communal Conflict Critical theory/Postmodernism Decolonization De facto/de jure Domestic jurisdiction Elite Enclave English School of IR Equality of States Ethnic Cleansing Ethnic Nationalism Ethnocentrism Extraterritoriality Failed nation-states Federalism Frontier Hegemonial stability theory Hegemony Hierarchy Hobbesian Image Imperialism Insurgency Integration Internal colonialism International System Irredentism Land reform Level of Analysis Liberalism Low-intensity conflict (LIC) Multipolarity Nation Nation-state Nationalism Neoliberalism Neorealism Non-intervention Normative theory Paradigm Pax Britannica Perception Pluralism Polarity Quasi-state Rationality Realism Recognition Region Regionalism Secession Security Security dilemma Security studies Self-determination Self-help Social science approach Sovereignty Spratly Islands State State-centrism State-system Structuralism Sub-system Unipolarity Westphalia, peace of (1648) World Society Zero-sum

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Actor
Any entity which plays an identifiable role in international relations may be termed an actor. The Pope, the Secretary-General of the UN, British Petroleum, Botswana and the IMF are thus all actors. The term is now widely used by both scholars and practitioners in international relations as it is a way of avoiding the obvious limitations of the word state. Although it lacks precision it does possess scope and flexibility. Its use also conveys the variety of personalities, organizations and institutions that play a role at present. Some authors have argued that, in effect, the system can be conceived of as a mixed actor model because the relative significance of the state has been reduced. More precise distinctions between actors can be made by introducing additional criteria. Such criteria might include the tasks performed by actors and the constituency affected by this task performance. Some commentators suggest that actors should be judged according to their degree of autonomy rather than the legalistic concept of sovereignty. pluralism

Administered territory
Refers to the ‘Mandates system’ established in Article XXII of the Covenant of the League of Nations usually credited to Jan Smuts but actually first proposed by G. L. Beer, a member of Woodrow Wilson’s staff at Paris in 1919. It...
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