Peach Fruit

Topics: Peach, Fruit, Prunus Pages: 14 (4234 words) Published: May 24, 2013
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the tree and its fruit. For other uses, see Peach (disambiguation) and Peachtree (disambiguation). Peach
Prunus persica

Autumn Red Peaches, cross section
Scientific classification
Species:P. persica
Binomial name
Prunus persica
(L.) Stokes[1]
The peach, Prunus persica, is a deciduous tree, native to China and South Asia, where it was first cultivated. It bears an edible juicy fruit also called a peach. The species name persica refers to its widespread cultivation in Persia, whence it was transplanted to Europe. It belongs to the genus Prunus which includes the cherry and plum, in the family Rosaceae. The peach is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. Peaches and nectarines are the same species, even though they are regarded commercially as different fruits. Nectarines have smooth skin, while peaches have fuzzy skin; genetic studies suggest nectarines are produced due to a recessive allele, whereas peaches are produced from dominant allele for fuzzy skin.[2] China is the world's largest producer of peaches and nectarines. Contents [hide]

1 Description
2 Etymology
3 History
4 Cultivation
4.1 Cultivars
4.2 Planting
4.2.1 Interaction with fauna
4.2.2 Diseases
4.3 Storage
4.3.1 Nectarines
4.3.2 Peacherines
4.4 Production
5 Cultural significance
5.1 China
5.2 Japan
5.3 Korea
5.4 Vietnam
5.5 Europe
6 Nutrition and research
6.1 Aroma
6.1.1 In other products
6.2 Phenolic composition
7 Color
8 Trivia
9 Gallery
10 References
11 External links
Description [edit]

Peach flower, fruit, seed and leaves as illustrated by Otto Wilhelm Thomé (1885). Prunus persica grows to 4–10 m (13–33 ft) tall and 6 in. in diameter. The leaves are lanceolate, 7–16 cm (2.8–6.3 in) long, 2–3 cm (0.79–1.2 in) broad, pinnately veined. The flowers are produced in early spring before the leaves; they are solitary or paired, 2.5–3 cm diameter, pink, with five petals. The fruit has yellow or whitish flesh, a delicate aroma, and a skin that is either velvety (peaches) or smooth (nectarines) in different cultivars. The flesh is very delicate and easily bruised in some cultivars, but is fairly firm in some commercial varieties, especially when green. The single, large seed is red-brown, oval shaped, approximately 1.3–2 cm long, and is surrounded by a wood-like husk. Peaches, along with cherries, plums and apricots, are stone fruits (drupes). There are various heirloom varieties, including the Indian peach, which arrives in the latter part of the summer.[3] Etymology [edit]

The scientific name persica, along with the word "peach" itself and its cognates in many European languages, derives from an early European belief that peaches were native to Persia. The Ancient Romans referred to the peach as malum persicum "Persian apple", later becoming French pêche, hence the English "peach".[4] Cultivated peaches are divided into clingstones and freestones, depending on whether the flesh sticks to the stone or not; both can have either white or yellow flesh. Peaches with white flesh typically are very sweet with little acidity, while yellow-fleshed peaches typically have an acidic tang coupled with sweetness, though this also varies greatly. Both colours often have some red on their skin. Low-acid white-fleshed peaches are the most popular kinds in China, Japan, and neighbouring Asian countries, while Europeans and North Americans have historically favoured the acidic, yellow-fleshed kinds. History [edit]

Although its botanical name Prunus persica refers to Persia (present Iran) from where it came to Europe, genetic studies suggest peaches originated in China,[5] where they have been cultivated since the early days of...
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