Paul Keating Analysis

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Speech 1: Everyman and Egalitarianism: Australia’s war history: Paul Keating Keating Speech
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Paul Keating Speech Annotation
Explores Keating’s context, Watson’s role and debate about the ownership of a speech. Also a recording of the speech runs over images of Keating. A eulogy delivered by the Prime Minister, The Hon. P. J. Keating MP, at the funeral service of the Unknown Australian Soldier, 11 November 1993 grows with each passing year, particularly as the last Australians who served in World War I have passed. Comprehension questions:

What is the significance of the word ‘we’ in the opening line? What is the effect of the repetition of, ‘We do not know him’? The third paragraph informs us of what we know through statistics. What is the effect of this technique? ‘He is all of them. And he is one of us’. Comment on the importance of this line. How have Australians attitude to war changed since WWI?

Describe the language in paragraph 6. What is being empahsised? What is the purpose of the single sentence paragraphs?
What lessons does Keating suggest we have learnt from war?
Who does the ‘Unknown soldier’ honour?
‘A reminder of what we have lost in war and what we have gained’. How does this antithesis unify Australians? What is the purpose of the colloquial language throughout the speech? The speech expands from a soldier in WWI to encompass all Australians. How does Keating achieve this? Can you hear any change in diction in the delivery of the speech? What is the purpose and effect of the dramatic pauses?

Describe the mood and how it is created.
Teacher annotation of speech
Responding questions:
What is the purpose of Keating’s speech? Is it a merely a eulogy? Or is it more of a political speech? What values are evoked in this speech?
Annotation of techniques
Para 1: Inclusive language. Emphatic diction – “never” Para 2: Repetition Emphatic diction
Para 3: Repetition Statistics
Para 4: Inclusive language. Metonymy
Para 5: Simile. Dramatic language
Para 6: Dramatic pause, using conjunction
Para 7: Emotive language. Contrast. Cliché
Para 8: Dramatic pause using conjunction. Paradox
Para 9: Juxtapositions of antithetical opposites (eg. war/peace, soldier/civilian). Universal language Para 10: Juxtapositions of antithetical opposites.
Para 11: Paradox
Para 13-14: Religious connotations
Inclusive language- creates a link between the speaker, audience and unknown soldier Success In unifying the e country and establishing the unknown soldier as the ‘true heart of the nation’ ‘he is one of us’-made the public realised that we share the qualities of ‘mateship’ ‘courage’ ‘resilience’ Repetition ‘We do not know’ repeated to emphasise the anonymity of unknown soldier to illustrate the many possibilities of who he left behind, where he was from and his marital status Contrast of individuality and anonymity- emotive effect on the impact of war on individual and national level. Audience takes time to realise the immense costs of war- communicates the idea that peace is one of the most valued human commodities and should be pursued more readily than war. Keating develops unity and a national spirit through repetition of ‘Australia, Unknown Soldier’- draws a connection between the two. Colloquial language- makes speech more accessible to the public and helps establish a firm connection between the speaker and his audience. ‘stick together’

‘have bonds of matehsip’
Contrasts images to appeal to the widest possible audience and allow them to empathise with the unknown soldier Contrast of binary opposites between the ‘city or the bush’, ‘married or single’- establishes link between soldier and widest possible portion of population ‘his tomb Is a reminder of what we have lost in war and what we have gained’- Antithesis of loss and gain emphasises the futility of war, where we lost lives but gained a ‘legend’ on which our national identity is based Contrast unifies...
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