•Remembrance Day/ Armistice Day- 1993
•Republican debate- ALP- made Republicanism the party line in 1991 under Hawke •May 1993- Republic Advisory Committee set up
•Mabo- 1992/ Native title- 1993
•Keating two year into PM role
-> commemorate those who have died and those who have served for Australia in field of conflict -> political agenda- to unite, galvanise and forge new identity for Australia under Keating’s leadership-> for Australians to take up ‘subject position’ as Australian citizens guided by values embedded in ANZAC legend/ tradition. AUDIENCE
•Australian public- those gathered and the ‘overhearing’ national and international audience-> future generations (www, Anzac Day celebrations) IDEAS
•Sacrifice for the greater good- for ‘all of us’
•Individuals not armies matter
•Ordinary people are the extraordinary
•Developed through a series of contrasting ideas
•Contrast is balanced and unified through effective use of repetition of phraseology and syntax •Individual becomes representational-> from the particular to the broader context (to achieve Keating’s dual purpose) •Contrast :
-> Loss and gain
-> Unknown/ known
-> Ordinary/ not ordinary
•Inclusivity- we, our, all of us
•Conditional conjunctions-> shifts tone and focus-> advances speech to next phase •Parallelism
•Blend of informal and formal terminology-> sustains broad audience and creates culturally inclusive atmosphere •Selective use of adjectival phrases- ‘free and independent spirits’, ‘courage and ingenuity in adversity’ •Selective us e of high and low modality
•Lexical chain of semi-religious and humanitarian values and ideals used to galvanise ‘Australians’- appropriate to funeral service context •Dialogic nature of speech- responding to / anticipating objection/ opinions •Exploits the power of end weight statements- eg. Main clause at the end of seventh paragraph- cumulative effect of the complex sentence and then end weight main clause •Shift from past to present tense -> to achieve dual purpose-> now ‘established’ identity of the Unknown Australian soldier and the ANZAC spirit offered to current Australians •High modal nouns to stress significance of Anzac Legend
•Contrast between the official story of Australian war and the Anzac spirit used to organise ideas about the nature of ANZAC legend. •Attempts to be inclusive of gender- both men and women contribute to war effort- yet it is masculine pronouns that are used throughout the speech. •Contrast between loss and gain; much more emphasis given to the gains •One sentence paragraph to conclude- combines past and present, citizen and soldier, war and peace Textual Integrity/ Endurance?
•Important historical reference point for Australia- military, social/cultural and political history •Valued for skilled crafting of language- rhetorical features fitting for solemn occasion- eulogy- model of an effective speech •For Australians of that generation- valued for important historical and social/ cultural worth- a document that binds a nation •Valued for fitting celebration/ commemoration of a universal experience- duty, service, patriotism, sacrifice, nationhood •Shared remembrance-> common purpose- national identity
Funeral of the Unknown Australian Soldier –Paul Keating 1993
1)What ideas/ ideals/ concepts/ issues are expressed in the text?
•The importance of remembrance, of patriotism, sacrifice, loyalty, the values (honour, duty, hardship, courage, bold, resilient) that galvanise a country and shape its identity- ‘to stick together’.
•Ordinary people are capable of...