Anatomy and Physiology
1. Bone – Bones are made up of different types of tissues and join together to form the skeleton of the body. Their primary purpose is to provide structure for the body and to protect organs. It also serves as a storage site for minerals as well as producing and storing blood cells. The three different tissues that bones are composed of are: a. Compact Tissue – The dense outer tissue in a bone. b. Cancellous Tissue – The sponge like tissue inside the bone c. Subchondral Tissue – Smooth tissue at the end of bones, covered in cartilage. i. Cartilage - gristly connective tissue that is present in adults, and the tissue from which most bones develop in children. [pic]
Together, compact and cancellous tissues are called the periosteum. Muscles, ligaments, and tendons attach to the periosteum. This allows the muscles to control the movement of the bones, and thus the body. Beneath the hard outer shell of the periosteum there are tunnels and canals through which blood and lymphatic vessels run to carry nourishment for the bone. Bones are classified by their shapes. There are four classifications: Long, short, flat and irregular. 2. Blood Vessels – Blood vessels carry blood throughout the body. They either carry oxygenated blood away from the heart; known as arteries, or carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart; known as veins. a. Blood – Blood is a bodily fluid that carries many different substances throughout the body. These substances include oxygen, minerals and nutrients. It also carries waste products to be filtered by the liver. Blood also contains platelets. i. Platelets – Also known as “Thrombocytes”, these cells are responsible for forming blood clots, which stop bleeding when there is a breach in the skin or severing of blood vessels. 1. Factor VIII – This protein is essential for blood clotting. It causes the blood to...
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