Background Of The Study
Hog raising is a very popular enterprise in the Philippines such that there is a proliferation of backyard producers, which dominates the swine industry and a healthy viable commercial sector. Despite the crises facing the swine industry, still many people are venturing in this enterprise.
Piggeries are type of factory farm specialized for raising of pigs up to slaughter weight. Some people keep pigs as pet but most of people keep them as a source of meat products, either directly or indirectly. The pig is the friendliest animal on the farm by far: always available for a scratch behind the ears, hardly ever moody, and quick with a grunt of delight. Yet the pig would also eat you for supper if the circumstances were right. Pigs are the only meat-eating animals that we, in turn, raise for meat. Agriculture itself could scarcely have evolved eons ago without the versatile pig, yet fewer and fewer farmers raise even a single pig these days because there comes a time where they cannot control the situations when problems occur such as spreading of diseases to their animals. The problem of that is not on the animals, but on the operations and maintenance of human resources like the piggeries. Pigs gets contaminated through direct or indirect contact or by eating uncooked slops or kitchen scraps or in some cases from outside animals that goes in and out from the piggeries containing the viruses or bacteria that can result to a big breakdown of the business. Viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, and some forms of parasites are considered microbes. When a microbe contributes to the occurrence of disease, it is referred to as a pathogen. Most microbes, however, do not adversely affect the animal. There is a normal flora of microbes literally covering every external and internal surface of the pig’s body. These normal microbes occur on the skin, in the ears, mouth, stomach, intestine, bladder, and vagina of the pig. The feces are composed primarily of microbes, approximately 100 billion microbes per gram. The pig is exposed to far more helpful microbes than harmful pathogens when reared under reasonable levels of sanitation either extensively outdoors or in confinement buildings. Many of these helpful or good microbes produce nutrients and aid digestion of food. Whether microbes cause disease is dependent upon several determinants including the specific causal agent or agents (often microbes), host factors, and environmental factors. These determinants are variable and directly or indirectly influence the frequency and/or occurrence of disease. Because of this variability, every effort should be made to keep out microbes that are known pathogens to pigs. To determine the health status of a herd, either blood samples for samples of body fluids for pathogen identification are frequently collected. These tests (such as serologic profiling), however, do not fully describe the health status of a pig and at times can be confusing. Serology simply suggests whether or not the pig has been exposed to a particular pathogen. Several situations are possible regarding an infection with a pathogen such as the pig could be in the incubatory stages of disease (infection exists but clinical expression of the disease has not occurred yet); a disease or illness is occurring; the pig has recovered from the disease either on its own or due to treatment but is still infected with the pathogen (referred to as a carrier state); the carrier pig may or may not be shedding the pathogen; thus, a carrier pig may or may not be infecting other pigs; the pig may be “immune” to the effects of the disease but still be infected with the pathogen (this immune state may be induced by vaccination or simply recovery from the infection); or the pig may recover plus eliminate the pathogen.
Because of this disparity, laboratory tests should not be the sole determinant of health status. Further, health decisions should not be...