Parkinson's Research Paper: Why Men Are More Prevalent to the Disease

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THE CAUSES OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE
AND WHY
IT AFFECTS PRODOMINANTLY THE MALE SEX

BY LEANNE JONES

Preceding Degree: BSc Adult (General) Nursing: 2011-2014
Previous Course: Access to Health & Nursing: 2010-2011

Secondary Research Report Presented as Partial Fulfillment to Attain Access to Health & Nursing

Faculty of Health and Nursing at South Essex College

ABSTRACT

Before examining the possible reasons why there appears to be an overwhelming prevalence of PD (Parkinson Disease) in men more than there is in women, it is imperative to this report that one firstly considers the general medical consensus of what the underlining causes of the condition are.

There are a variety of conditions that also affect the central nervous system, which at first glance may appear to be PD; presenting with similar symptoms. The primary cause of symptoms in PD sufferers is due to the reduced levels of Dopamine produced, which acts as a chemical messenger in the brain. The symptoms of PD include a sluggishness of movement, a certain rigidity and tremors, also statistically speaking in 1991 there was, on average, 1 in every 750 people diagnosed with PD.

Many authors recognise that men are almost twice as likely to develop PD as their female counterparts. Therefore the following explores the causes of Parkinson’s disease in order to investigate the possible reasons as to why men are more likely to be affected with condition than women.

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ATTESTATION

I understand the nature of plagiarism, and am aware of the University’s policy on this project. I therefore certify that this report is based on secondary research material analysed by me during my project. The two main secondary sources are as follows:

The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research (December 21st 2006), Study Suggests Association between High Body Mass Index and Increased Parkinson's Risk, Reuters Health. Accessed online: www.michaeljfox.org/newsEvents_parkinsonsInTheNews_article.cfm?ID=155 Date accessed: 10/01/2011 *

Allison Gandey (2009), Hormones Appear to Protect Women from Parkinson’s, Medscape Nurses LLC. Accessed online: www.medscape.com/viewarticle/590488 Date accessed: 10/01/2011

Signature: .............................................................. Date: ......../......../...........

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Acknowledgements go to the Michael J Fox Foundation and Medscape Nurses LLC for providing the access to the research material required for analysis current and up-to-date report on the findings.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction1

Literature Review2
Historical Context of Parkinson's Disease2
Causes of Parkinson's Disease3
Types of Parkinson's Disease3
Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease5
Investigating Body Mass Index (BMI)5

METHOD10
FINDINGS12

DISCUSSION14

CONCLUSION16
Recommendations17

BIBLIOGRAPHY18
APPENDIX (Research material used)20-iv-
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* Introduction

The following report is an analysis of the past and current literature regarding the origins of Parkinson’s disease. The purpose of this is to explore whether there is any correlation or difference between the sexes in terms of whom is more susceptible to developing Parkinson’s disease. According to McCall et al (2004), Factor & Weiner (2008) and Freberg (2006), a man is twice more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than his female counterpart. Yet there appears to be no definitive consensus as to what the reasons are for this fundamental difference between sexes. There are some theories that are offered which shall be looked at further within the literature review.

The report that follows is therefore based on secondary material using books, journals and reputable websites, in order to gather the information required to make an educated and unbiased assessment of the...
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