Ch 25 Review Questions
Q1. What was the significance of the 1963 March on Washington? 250,000 black and white Americans converged on the nation’s capital for the March on Washington, often considered the high point of the nonviolent civil rights movement. Organized by a coalition of civil rights, labor, and church organizations led by Phillip Randolph, the black unionist who had threatened a similar march, it was the largest public demonstration in the nation’s history at that time. Calls for the passage of a civil rights bill pending before Congress took center stage. The march’s goals also included a public-works program to reduce unemployment, an increase in the minimum wage, and a law barring discrimination in employment. Q2. In what ways were President Kennedy’s foreign policy decisions shaped by Cold War ideology? Like his predecessors, Kennedy viewed the entire world through the lens of the Cold War. This outlook shaped his dealings with Fidel Castro, who had led a revolution that in 1959 ousted Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. Until Castro took power, Cuba was an economic dependency of the United States. When his government began nationalizing American landholding and other investments and signed an agreement to sell sugar to the Soviet Union, the Eisenhower administration suspended trade with the island. The CIA began training anti-Castro exiles for an invasion of Cuba. Kennedy allowed the CIA to launch its invasion at a site known as the Bay of Pigs. Q3. Explain the significance of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In 1964, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which prohibited racial discrimination in employment, institutions like hospitals and schools, and privately owned public accommodations such as restaurants, hotels, and theaters. It also banned discrimination on the grounds of sex, a provision added by opponents of civil rights in order to derail the entire bill and embraced by liberal and female members of Congress as a way to broaden its scope. In January 1965, King launched a voting rights campaign in Selma, Alabama. When the marchers reached the bridge leading out of the city, they were assaulted by city and state police. Congress quickly passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which allowed federal officials to register voters. Black southerners finally regained the suffrage that had been stripped from them at the turn of the twentieth century. Q4. Explain why many blacks, especially in the North, did not believe that the civil rights legislation went far enough in promoting black freedom. In the mid -1960’s economic issues rose to the forefront of the civil rights agenda. Violent outbreaks in black ghettos outside the South drew attention to the national scope of racial injustice and to inequalities in jobs, education and housing that the dismantling of legal segregation left intact. Much of the animosity that came to characterize race relations arose from the belief of many whites that the legistaltion of 1964 and 1965 had fulfilled the nation’s obligation to assure blacks equality before the law while black, aware of the discrimination they still faced in jobs, education, housing, and criminal justice system pushed for more government action, sparking fear of “reverse discrimination.”
Q5. What were the effects of President Johnson’s Great Society and War on Poverty programs? One of the Great Society’s most popular and successful components, food stamps, offered direct aid to the poor. But, in general, the War on Poverty concentrated not on direct economic aid, but on equipping the poor with skills and rebuilding their spirit and motivation. The new office of Economic Opportunity oversaw a series on initiatives designed to lift the poor into the social and economic mainstream. It provided headstart, job training, legal services and scholarships for poor college students. Q6. In what ways was the New Left not as...