Philippine literature, written in Filipino, English, Spanish, and Philippine languages (e.g., Cebuan, Ilocano, Tagalog, Hiligaynon, Pampangan, Hanunuo-Mangyan, and Bontok), has been influenced by colonization, economic and social systems, religion, and political movements. An oral tradition continues to exist through epics, riddles, poems, and legends of the country's around sixty ethnolinguistic groups, reflecting a culture linked with the Malay of Southeast Asia and the influence of Indian, Arabic, and Chinese cultures. With the colonization of the islands by Spain and the United States, Western forms such as the novel, short story, essay, and full-length play were introduced. However, resistance to colonization also produced a tradition of radical literature. Philippine literary texts have been records of everyday life, historical documents, receptacles of values, and either participants Is this Essay helpful? Join OPPapers to read more and access more than 200,000 just like it! in the colonial discourses of the colonizers, or
testaments to freedom and sovereignty.
Precolonial Literature (1564)
Among the literary forms during the precolonial period were riddles and proverbs, at the heart of which were the talinghaga (metaphor); the Hanunoo-Mangyan ambahan (a poetic form chanted without a predetermined musical pitch); the Tagalog poetic form tanaga; myths, fables, and legends; mimetic dances and rituals that at times involved a plot (for example, the Ch'along of the Ifugao); and epics, such as Lam-ang and Labaw Donggon. Created in communal societies, the subject matter and metaphors came from common village experiences. Literature was essential in daily life, rites of passage, and survival. Songs provided rhythm at work, rituals healed the sick, and epics validated community beliefs. Each member of the community was a poet or storyteller, and the conventions of oral literature—formulaic repetition, character stereotypes, and rhythmic devices—facilitated...
Philippine Literature - A Brief History
Philippine is a country rich in diversity and language heritage. Even before Spanish colonization, its literature had evolved tremendously. Some of the notable literatures are a general reflection of the influence exerted by Spaniards during the colonization of Philippine. During pre-colonial times, there has been widespread evidence that the island inhabitants display a culture rich with traditions. Folk speeches, folk songs and indigenous rituals are part of their daily lives. The infusion of such elements represents a lifestyle deeply ingrained in the locals. An understanding on the history of Philippine literature will allow us to appreciate the literary riches of this nation. The colonization by Spain did not subject literature development to a halt. Rather, it breathed a different kind of life into the local literary works. European civilization was imbued into the local traditions through religion and institutions. During that period of time, performing theaters were introduced and the local languages experienced enrichment. Much later, Spain brought about liberal ideas and a sense of internationalism to the people of Philippines. Similar to the period of renaissance, it has substantial influence on local intellectuals. They start to question and portray the meanings of "liberty and freedom" in their works. The history of Philippine literature demonstrates that the combination of realism and surrealism gives rise to some of the greatest Philippines literature today. 19th century marks a change in the literary development when Filipino intellectuals educated in Europe wrote about colonization and the associated downsides. This realization brought about a reformation movement which eventually led to the downfall of the Spanish colonial. The history of Philippine literature was once again marked by a change when English was introduced. The...