Crude Palm oil is extracted from the mesocarp of the fruit of the palm Elaeis guineensis. Crude palm oil (CPO) is refined by physical refining to get Refined, Bleached and Deodourised Palm oil. Palm Fatty acid distillate is produced as by product. The method of manufacturing of PFAD is as follows: The initial temperature of CPO is raised to 60 – 90°C. .
After that, there is about 20% of the CPO feed to into the slurry and mix with the bleaching earth (6 – 12kg/ton CPO) to form slurry (CPO + Bleaching earth). Then, the slurry will go into the bleacher.
At the same time, another 80% of the CPO is pumped through another plate heat exchanger (PHE) and steam heater to increase the CPO temperature to 90 – 130°C (it is a desired temperature for the reaction between CPO and phosphoric acid). Then, the CPO feed is pumped to static mixers and the phosphoric acid is dosed at 0.35 – 0.45 kg/ton. Inside there, the intensive mixing is carried out with the crude oil for precipitation up the gums. The degumming CPO then will go into bleacher.
In the bleacher, there are 20% slurry and 80% degummed CPO will mix together and the bleaching process occur.
The slurry containing the oil and bleaching earth is then passed through the filter to give a clean, free from bleaching earth particles oil. The hot BPO then proceeds to the next stage where the free fatty acid content and the color are further reduced and more important, it is deodorized to produce a product which is stable and bland in flavor.
In the pre-stripping and deodorizing column, deacidification and deodorization process happen concurently. Deodorization is a high temperature, high vacuum and steam distillation process. A deodorizer operates in the following manner: (1) dearates the oil, (2) heat up the oil, (3) steam strips the oil and (4)cools the oil before it leaves the system. The fatty acid vapor leaving the deodorizer are condensed and collected in the...