Pak Study Notes

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PAKISTAN STUDIES

DOWNFALL OF MUSLIMS IN SUBCONTINENT
Eighteenth century witnessed major change in to two continents of the world i.e; Europe and Asia In Europe strong monarchies and corporate communities or merchant communities were on the rise where as india the Rule of Muslims in India were taking last breath. Several causes lead to the decline of muslims power in India contributory factors which proved last straw for muslim empire in India. 1)No suceesion Plan:- first and Major reason of decline of Muslim rule in Indian subcontinent was that there was no succession in muslims after the death of one king his brothers, sons fought with each other at that time Darwinian theory of “survival of fittest” was suited to Indian kings where only powerfull has ascend to throne and weaker was killed or incarcinated. 2)Geographical expansion of The empire:- The second reason was that the empire of muslim was vast it stratches from Present india, Pakistan and Afghanistan it was near to impossible to govern that vast area while sitting in one capital city which ultimately creates the feeling of sovereignty in small states which lead to unrest in small states. 3)Deterioration of Morality:- Most of Kings were fond of liquior and women these two factors lead the way for decline of Mugh al Empire abundance of wealth, luxurious life and leisure made them reckless and incompetent to rule.

4) Lack of orginised Army specialy Navay:- Muslims were lacked the orginised Army after death of jehangir the commanders of the Army were involved in conspiricies in order to get to the throne where as their main foucs was the power then to concentrate on Preparation to face aggression from out side. Portougees, French and English entered through sea route for commercial purposes where they captured coastal areas and built their Garrisons and formed strong orginsied force consist of locals as well their own manpower. 5)Intellectual Bankrupcy:- As muslim rules indulged in immoral activities there concentration to create a viable education has diverted to leisure and luxurious life….. 6)Corrupt administration:- Minsters,courtiers accepted bribes which ultimately weakend the foundation of Muslim rule in Indian . 7)Invasion of Nadir shah and Ahmed shah Abdali:- Invasion of Nadir shah and Ahmed shah abdali in india aggrandized the situation for rulers destruction of dehli loot and plunder of Nadir shah has weaknd the authority of rulers and the empire had become economically weak. 8)Rise of Sikhs and Marahtas:- During the days of farukhsiar and jahandar shah Banda Bahadar has killed the governor of sirhandi wazir khan and captured the area where as nationalism of Marahtas also rose to the extent that their influence was to the Dehli. 9)Advent of East india Compony:- Advent of east india compony into Indian soil become the last straw in to rule of muslims they came to india as the traders where they started their disruptive activities and finaly became the rulers of subcontinents

PAKISTANI CULTURE

Q.1. Define Culture and Describe the salient features of Pakistani Culture. Contents
* 1 Definition of Culture
* 2 Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture
* 3 Salient Features of Pakistani Culture
* 4 Conclusion
Definition of Culture
Culture may be defined as behaviour peculiar to human beings, together with material objects used. Culture consists of language, ideas, beliefs, customs, codes, institution, tools, techniques, works of arts, ceremonies and so on. E.B. Taylor defines culture as

the complex whole which include knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. According to Allama Iqbal
Culture encompasses all the mental, spiritual and physical activities of a nation. It includes teh basic beliefs and faith, values and literature, art and architecture, music and mode of dress, manners and customs prevalent in a given society. Pakistani Culture is an Islamic...
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