Overview of the Decision Making Under Stress
By Yamin Mirdad
EMGT 313 Managerial Decision Making Spring 2012 Missouri University Of Science and Technology
Many papers and researches were written on Decision making and the influences that affect on this heavier, it can be called one of the main effected causative, which is stress. The stress is one of the factors that decision makers must deal with in most of life or death situations, for better understanding of individual judgment and decision making activities whilst under stress would yield a better understanding of how people reach the choices they make in emergencies. The effect of stressful conditions on human judgment is of importance to emergency managers; firefighting system and all system can be work under stress. This paper is going to give some hints for the stress effect on emergency managers, and Bushfire lesson learn from their experience of decision making under stress, exactly for issues that related to life or death od people. The decisions that are made in the first minutes, hours, and days are critical to successful mitigation; damage control; prevention of death, injury and structural loss; control of financial costs; and, ultimately, the overall resolution of the disaster. Stress also has an influence on moral dilemmas medical staff, which they have to face every day. The brain regions involved in moral decision-making is areas that are also sensitive to stress. Stress in both in real life and experimentally made by either a social-cognitive stress task or, by application of stress hormones hat can influence cognitive and emotive functioning. Acute stress leads to activation of the sympathetic nervous system and a release of cortisol through the activation of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis. Recent
neuroimaging studies have shown that stress can also lead to changes in the prefrontal cortex and limbic system functioning. This paper will emphasize on stress and decision making which they are intricately connected, not only on the behavioral level, but also on the neural level, i.e., the brain regions that underlie intact decision making are regions that are sensitive to stress-induced changes The review indicates that stress alters decision making, suggesting that stress may affect how we make everyday decisions and life-altering choices. Moreover, this paper will touch a study examined whether anticipatory stress affects the decision-making measured with the Game of Dice Task (GDT). Results indicate that stress can lead to disadvantageous decision making even when explicit and stable information about outcome contingencies is provided. The effect of stress on decisionmaking is of specific interest because many decisions have to be made under stress in daily life. People’s decisions are often susceptible to various demands exerted by the environment, leading to stressful conditions.
2. Emergency managers and Stress: 2.1.
There is a difference between stress and stressor. Stressor is the sources of the threat while stress is the psychological impact of the threat-situation. These definitions are what the firefighter group thinking about stress. One popular current definition stipulates that, stress is a process by which certain work demands suggest an appraisal process in which perceived demands exceed resources and result in undesirable physiological, emotional, cognitive and social changes. The relationship of stress to judgment and decision-making is an aspect of human behavior that remains inadequately explored. 2.2. Stress vs. perception It is critical to include the concept of perception when discussing stress in relation to performance, including performance in judgment and decision-making. The key phrase ”perceived demands‘ is used as a definition of stress too. The ability to cope with stress is dependent...