Instructor: Donald Mason
January 13, 2012
Every society has rules to go by and laws that must not be broken and along with that is the criminal justice that even gives the criminal rights. Criminals in the United States are to be given their rights and not to have harm to them in any way under the justice system as they may be freed from their prosecution and their case be acquitted if found in their favor if an act of unjust or immoral conduct has been found. Law enforcement professionals must execute justice by upholding the law in an ethical and constitutional manner. “The United States Department of Justice seeks to prevent or resolve community conflicts and tensions arising from actions, policies, and practices perceived to be discriminatory on the basis of race, color, or national origin (CRS National Office).” Every officer must follow and obey the law in and out of vested uniform. The Constitution of the United States are most relevant to the ethical standards of law enforcement professionals by the prohibitions against warrantless search and seizure are parts of the United States Constitution which are relevant to the ethical standards of law enforcement. Law enforcement professionals ensure that they uphold the Constitution by following Law Enforcement Oath of Honor this is recommended as by the International Association of Chiefs of Police as symbolic statement of commitment to ethical behavior: “On my honor, I will never betray my badge, my integrity, my character, or the public trust. I will always have the courage to hold myself and others accountable for our actions. I will always uphold the constitution to my community and the agency I serve.” (The law enforcement code of ethics) Law enforcement professionals use the social justice principles of equality, solidarity, and human rights to build a more just society by it advocates as it is based on the principles of solidarity and equality and understands the values of every human right. Law Enforcement seek to lessen the likelihood that officers will succumb to corruption by administering psychological tests designed to determine which officers have the personality that would make them more likely to be susceptible to corruption Martin, R. (2011, May). There are many theories as why people commit crimes. Many believe that there is little doubt that some commit a crime such as theft out of desperation, especially when food is stolen as there are too many programs to help the poor such as food stamp programs and food pantries. Organized gangs attract the attention by stealing in order and cost stores millions of dollars each year. Demonology is the oldest known explanation of behavior as it used to be thought that criminal behavior was the result of the mind and body being possessed and the only way to rid the evil was through exorcism by a torturous means. This is back when they didn’t focus on the environment and only focused on the individual. Cesare Lombroso an Italian criminologist in 1876 promoted the theory of ‘anthropological determinism’ that essentially stated that criminality was inherited and that someone was a “born criminal” and they identified them by physical defects (Lombroso, 1876). Siegmund Freud had a different view on what makes a criminal as Freud proposed that a an overdeveloped superego was the resulted from an excessive sense of guilt. As he believed that a persons with overdeveloped superegos will feel guilty for no apparent reason and wish to be punished in order to relieve their guilt. “ Freud also identified the “pleasure principle”; that humans have basic unconscious biological urges and a desire for immediate gratification and satisfaction (Freud, 1856)”. This includes desires for sex, food, and the need for survival. According to Albert Bandura’s theory, delinquent and criminal behavior is learned through repeated exposure...