Ottoman

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ُ1805-1848
the Reforms carried out by Muhammad Ali in Egypt was clear economically and militarily. Muhammed Ali refashioned the armed forces, reorganized the adminstaration, changed the policies of landholding and agricultural production. Muhammed ali’s ampitions were clear. He expanded his territorre to north sudan, west coast of Arabia, parts of syria and Palestine and parts of Anatolia. His plans was to secure independence from the Ottoman empire, and to establish in Egypt a hereditary dynasty for his family. The main purpose of Muhammed Ali’s reforms was to strengthen the armed forces. He modeled his military along European lines. The goal of building european- style army was to get rid of the Mamluks. Mamluks were opposing Muhammed Ali’s reforms and they refuse to obey him, consequently Muhammed Ali massacred about 74 of them as they were leaving his castle after dinner. This step helped Muhammad Ali to atcheive his reforms.

In addition of sending military training mission to Europe, Muhammed Ali reforms education as well . He Opened school of medicine, engineering, chemistry, the school of languge. Muhammed Ali’s acceptance of the printing press was a break from the tradition of the Ottoman, that would open the door for his ambitions of building his dynesty. Muhammed Ali stoped the iltizam system, and applied tax on everybody even Waqf lands. He break the hold of the Ulama over waqfs. This reform increase the state control over lands and revenues, and reduce the wealth of the Mamluks and the ulama. This reform introduce the concept of privet ownership land. Muhammed Ali pasha set up the monopoly system to control the revenues of cotton in Egypt. He forced cultivators to sell cotton directly to him at a fixed price, then sold to European buyers at higher prices. Muhammed Ali’s reformes were more succesful than Selim III, in which his reformed military were sent on war through out the Middle East. They were sent to fight Wahhabi movement in Sudi...
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