Intelligence has been defined in many different ways including, but not limited to, abstract thought, understanding, selfawareness, communication, reasoning, learning, having emotional knowledge, retaining, planning, and problem solving. Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in animals and in plants. Artificial intelligence is the simulation of intelligence in machines. Within the discipline of psychology, various approaches to human intelligence have been adopted. The psychometric approach is especially familiar to the general public, as well as being the most researched and by far the most widely used in practical settings.
Theories of intelligence
There are many views regarding what constitutes intelligence. Different psychologists have given different view points and formulated their own theories of intelligence. Some important such theories are as follows: • Unitary theory
• Two factor theory of Spearman
• Multi-factor theory of Thorndike
• Group-factor theory of Thurstone
• Structure of Intellects by Guilford
• Hirarchial theory of Burt-Vernon
Unitary or Monarchy Theory
This theory holds that intelligence consists of all pervasive capacities. According to this theory, if one has a fund of intelligence he can utilise it to any area of his life. The intelligence of a person gets stamped in all what he thinks and acts. But in our practical life we see contrary to this. A genial mathematical professor may be absent minded or social ill-adjusted. Further analysis of scores in an intelligence test battery shows that different tests in the battery are not highly correlated. Hence, it is suggested that the unifactory approach is too simple and a complex model is needed to explain intelligence satisfactorily.
Two Factor theory of Spearman
Spearman proposed this Two factor theory of intelligence in 1904. As the name implies, the theory involves two factors namely General(G) and Specific(S) factors. The first factor was a general capacity which was basically a reasoning factor. According to this theory every different mental ability involves a general factor(G), which it shares with all other mental activities and a specific factor(S), which is shared with none. The general factor is largely innate and accounts for success in all activities. It is constant in the sense that for any individual it remains the same of all the correlated activities. It differs from individual to individual. But success in any specialised field very much depends on the concern specific factor which is essentially learned. Thus no person is absolutely uniform in his mental performance. So persons who are good in certain field or discipline may be poor in the other. Some who excel in Mathematics might be poor in language or literature. Thus, performance in any situation is predicted by the amount of share of General and Specific factors in different intellectual activities.
Multi-factor theory of Thorndike
Thorndike was an Associationist and he opposed the theory of General intelligence. He proposed that they are Specific stimuli and Specific response. According to him, Intelligence is nothing more than a convenient name for almost infinite number of actual or potential specific connections between these stimuli and responses. According to the theory intelligence is said to be constituted of multitude of separate factors or elements each being a minute element or ability. A mental act involves a a number of these minute elements operating together. If any two tasks are correlated, the degree of correlation is due to the common elements involved in the two tasks. Thorndike distinguished 4 attributes of intelligence. They are: • Level
This refers to the difficulty of a task that can be solved. If we think of all test items arranged in a sequential order of increasing difficulty, then the...