Research Study Design
What is the role of extroversion (mediator) in the stress (DV) factor of students from individualistic cultures (IV)?
This research question was chosen due to the proximity and significance of the results to our lives as university students under constant stress. Student stress factors include, but are not limited to: living on a budget, living away from family (international students predominantly), time issues relating studying and/or working, culture shock, adapting to a new country, climate, people. It may be particularly relevant to identify the role of extroversion in dealing with stress, for students may so take it as a way to reduce stress if extroversion proves to be effective. Even more so, if through the questionnaires a positive correlation between individualism and stress is observed, extroversion may serve as a coping method with stress, as it is expected that extroverts rely on people to feel good; if introverts rely solely on themselves to cope with stress, factors such as emotional stability (brain or personality anomalies or disorders) may play a crucial role in determining whether or not there is the possibility for individualism to exacerbate stress. The model below expresses the relationship between the variables.
The independent variable is the individualism factor of cultures. The dependent variable is the stress factor
The third variable is extroversion, which acts as a mediator in theoretically reducing stress in students from individualistic cultures. Hypotheses
Hypothesis: Extroversion has a positive correlation in the reduction of stress in students from individualistic cultures. Hypothesis 2: Introversion has a negative correlation in the reduction of stress in students from individualistic cultures. Hypothesis H0 = Extroversion plays no role in reducing stress in students from individualistic cultures.
The survey sample method was the preferred of data collection is through questionnaires due to the convenience and readiness through which results can be attained. Each questionnaire is a personal and confidential paper with only the student’s answers and nationality; only questionnaires with students from countries with individualism levels higher than 65 (according to the Hofstede scale) will be considered. The first questionnaire will be designed with the finality to discern between extroverts and introverts; it will consist of 15 basic questions about the person’s life setting, measuring their level of sociability and privacy. Later, they will be provided with a second questionnaire about the level of and how often they experience stress or positive moods, and will be measured by 20 questions about their life style and perception. These questionnaires will provide an overview of the level of stress experienced by extroverts and introverts. Questionnaires are not only cheap to administer, they also provide of insight on symptoms and emotions and the quantitative analysis thereof; however, the social desirability bias may jeopardize the objectivity of some answers, as well as the risk of some sensitive questions triggering specific reactions in students who might shape the answers. Sample questions can be found in Appendix 1.
Considering the many limitations in this study design proposal, with the potential large number of respondents, it was decided there is no representative sample for the statistical analysis of the questionnaires. The answers of the questionnaires will be translated to SPSS and due to the ordinal nature of the variables will allow for the data to be analysed through crosstabs and represented in bar charts, frequency tables and a scatter plot with a best fitting line.
Reasoning and Evidence for Hypothesis Testing
It has been inculcated that extroversion may be predictive of and is strongly correlated with, happiness...