Organisational Structure and Culture

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1.1{a} Authority and power
Span of control:
-The number of dependents that a manager or controller can directly control. This number varies with the type of work: complex, variable work reduces it to six, whereas routine, fixed work increases it to twenty or more. -Management literature identifies various factors that cause span of control to differ among managers and in different organizations. For example, narrower spans of control are appropriate when the nature of work performed is complex, when organizational objectives are unclear, when tasks are uncertain, or risks are high. -Narrow spans of control nurture tall organizations with many organizational/managerial layers. -Flat organizations have broader spans of control.

-The right span of control efficiently balances too little and too much regulation. -Subordinates work: if all subordinates do similar tasks or the task is substantially automated or complex work, posting time-consuming problems suggests a narrow span of control.

Multifunctional Team /Structure:
Group composed of members from two or more departments or functional areas working together to solve a problem or handle a situation that requires capabilities, knowledge, and training not available from any one source. See also multidisciplinary team. Advantages:

1-Removes barriers between operating departments.
2-Improve morale.
3-Improve quality and speed of decision making.
4-Increased passion for work.
Disadvantages:
2-Excessive time spent in meeting.
3-Use the time depends on the team management.
Organization Chart:
Organizational chart represents the structure of an organization in terms of relationships among personnel or departments and is the most intuitive way to understand your organization. Organizational chart makes information accessible throughout the organization with a unified, visual view of critical data from different business systems and providing the tools to model business scenarios and plan for change. Organizational chart makes employees more productive, helping them understand company strategy and structure.

-Compare between Organization and Depart mentation:

1- Organizing:
Organizing is the process of defining and grouping activities and establishing authority relationships among them to make organizational objectives. "Organization is the process of identifying and grouping of the works to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most efficiently" - Louis A. Allen -Importance of Organizing:

· Organizing helps Organizations to earn the benefit of specialization. · Organizing provides for Best utilization of resources.
· Organizing helps in Effective administration.
· Organizing channels for Expansion and growth.
· Organizing achieves co-ordination among different departments. · Organizing creates possibility for new change.

-Organizing Process:
1- Division of work: The first process of Organizing includes identification and division of work which shall be done in accordance with the plans that are firm before. 2-Depart mentation: once the work of recognizing and dividing the work has been done those are similar are to be grouped. 3- Linking departments: When the process of depart mentation was completed, linking of departments has to be done so that those departments operate in a coordinated way which gives a shape to overall organization structure. 4 -Transfer Duties: On completion of depart mentation process assigning duties defining authority and responsibility to the employees on the basis of their skills and capabilities has to be done, which in import increases efficiency with regard to their work. 5-Structure induction: each employee should also know from whom he has to take orders and to whom he is accountable/responsible.

-Organization Structure:
Organization structure is the pattern of relationships among various components or parts of...
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