Just as organisations have goals describing their primary business objectives, they also have goals with respect to controlling how these objectives are met. These are the control goals of an organisation which are enforced through a system of internal control. Such a system enables them to adhere to external laws and internal regulations, prevent and detect fraud and continuously enhance the overall quality of the business. Independent of the type of organisation, these internal control systems use common underlying principles to establish and achieve control over business activities. What is required is to provide a unifying representation of control principles allowing for their extended analysis and exploration. This thesis presents a framework suitable to express and analyse a set of selected control principles.
The term organization has often been used in a two-fold sense. Firstly, organization may refer to the function of organizing and secondly it may refer to the structure of individuals and facilities by means of which a manager of an organization has plans carried out. According to Louis A. Allen : "Organisation is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority, and establishing relationship for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives." CHARECTERISTICS OF ORGANISATION
(a) It is group of individual, which may be small or large. (b) The group in the organization works under the direction of executive leadership. (c) It is a function of management.
(d) It consists of some directing authority, which controls the collective efforts of the group. (e) It refers to a structure of duties and responsibilities. (f) It is established for the accomplishment of common objectives. (g) It is a continuous function and is performed in varying degrees by all level of management. From the first line supervisor to the top executive of the enterprise. (h) It cannot be static for the simple reason that an organization, which is effective today, may not be satisfactory according to needs and situations prevailing in future.
NATURE OF ORGANISATION
(a) Group of person: - Organization begins when people combine their efforts for some common purpose. It is universal truth that an individual is unable to fulfill his needs and desires alone because he lacks strength ability and resources. So he seeks the corporation of other people who have similar goals. (b) Structure of relationship: - An organization is a dynamic entity consislting of individuals, men, objectives and relationship among the individuals. An organization is certainly more than a chart. It is the mechanism through which management directs, coordinates and controls the activity of the enterprise. (c) Process: - An organization is regarded as a process. A set of five processes is commonly accepted as five functions of organization. They are- sub-division of main work into small groups. Based on principle of equality, division of different jobs in to certain well defined groups, selection of suitable personnel and allocation of jobs according to suitability. Allotment of rights and authority to be personnel who have been assigned the job so that may be able to accomplish their jobs satisfactory. Determination of position at different levels. (d) Function of Management: - Organisation is a process of integrating and co-ordinating the efforts of manpower and material resources for the accomplishment of certain objectives.Just as planning is applied to every other managerial function the process of organisation is also used in every aspect of management. (e) System: - The latest development in the field of organisation theory is to view organisation as a system. Systems concepts recognize those organisations are made up of components, each of which has unique...