Organic Chemistry Al Notes

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Topic Acid-Base Theory (Unit 1) Acid-Base Theory (Unit 2) Isomerism (Unit 1) Isomerism (Unit 2) Nomenclature Reaction Mechanism (Unit 1) - Introduction to Mechanism Reaction Mechanism (Unit 2) - Nucleophilic substitution Reaction Mechanism (Unit 3) - Nucleophilic substitution Reaction Mechanism (Unit 4) - Nucleophilic substitution Reaction Mechanism (Unit 5) - Nucleophilic substitution Reaction Mechanism (Unit 6) - Nucleophilic substitution Reaction Mechanism (Unit 7) - Elimination Reaction Mechanism (Unit 8) - Elimination Reaction Mechanism (Unit 9) - Nucleophilic addition Reaction Mechanism (Unit 10) - Nucleophilic addition Reaction Mechanism (Unit 11) - Nucleophilic addition Reaction Mechanism (Unit 12) - Nucleophilic addition Reaction Mechanism (Unit 13) - Nucleophilic addition Reaction Mechanism (Unit 14) - Nucleophilic addition Reaction Mechanism (Unit 15) - Electrophilic addition Reaction Mechanism (Unit 16) - Electrophilic addition Reaction Mechanism (Unit 17) - Electrophilic substitution Reaction Mechanism (Unit 18) - Electrophilic substitution Reaction Mechanism (Unit 19) - Electrophilic substitution Reaction Mechanism (Unit 20) - Radical reactions Amino acids Oxidation and Reduction Uses of compounds with different functional groups Structure determination (Unit 1) Structure determination (Unit 2) Structure determination (Unit 3) Structure determination (Unit 4) Organic synthesis Organic Laboratory Technique (Unit 1) Organic Laboratory Technique (Unit 2) Organic Laboratory Technique (Unit 3) Organic Laboratory Technique (Unit 4)

Reference Reading from Solomons, Organic Chemistry 6th edition 90-93, 96-101 102-118, 320, 433-434, 795-796, 903-905, 970-972 59-61 178-185, 188, 193-198, 200 41-47, 65-75, 128-137, 284-286, 288-289, 415-417, 615-617, 705-706, 792-793, 797-800, 899-900 87-90, 94-96 224-233, 238-252, 256-259 260 913-914 438-443 923-924, 926-927, 966 260-262, 265-268, 300, 302-305 308, 312, 318-319, 443-444 719 470-472, 716-719, 729-734, 759-761 708-711 805-817, 820-824 919-921 711, 825-827, 918 327-333 336-339, 346-351, 422-425 617-618, 655-658 658-664, 930-931, 974 930-931, 974 334-335, 366-379, 393-397 1146-1148 165-166, 473-475, 690-691, 915-916

295-297 359-360, 742 541-547 169-171

Summary of Organic Reactions (I. Alkanes)

Page 1

I.
A. B.

Alkanes
Cracking
very long alkane → long alkane + short alkene
heat , catayst

Combustion
y y CxHy + (x + 4 ) O2(g) → xCO2(g) + 2 H2O(l)

C.

Chlorination
Chain initiation (chain initiating step)
Cl Cl hυ Cl + Cl Cl· radical is generated.

Chain propagation (chain propagating step)
H Cl H C H H Cl H + H C H H Cl· radical is consumed.

H Cl Cl C H H Cl + Cl

H C H H Cl· radical is regenerated.

Chain termination (chain terminating step)
Cl + Cl H Cl C H H H C H H C H H H Cl Cl Cl H C H H H H C C H H H H +

Energy

radical is destroyed.

A mixture of products would be obtained.

Summary of Organic Reactions (II. Alkenes and alkynes)

Page 2

II.
A. 1.

Alkenes and alkynes
Addition reactions Reaction with bromine in CCl4
Br2 + R C C R R in CCl4 R in dark Br Br C R R R C R

1,2-dibromoalkane

Note :

Test for C=C or C≡C bond
Br OH C R R R

2.

Reaction with bromine water
Br2(aq) + R C C R R R in dark R C

halohydrin

Note :

Test for C=C or C≡C bond
H Br H C C H major product

3.

Reaction with hydrogen bromide
H C H H H C C C H
+

H Br

H H H 2-bromopropane Br H H H C C C H minor product H H H 1-bromopropane

H H propene

Note :

Follows Markownikov's orientation
OH S O C R R

4.

Reaction with conc. sulphuric(VI) acid
conc. H2SO4(l) + R C C R R R O H R C R O

alkyl hydrogensulphate(VI)

Note :

A reversible reaction
OH O H S O C R R O + H2O(l) H R C R OH C R R + H2SO4(aq)

R C R

alcohol

alkyl hydrogensulphate(VI)

Note :

Laboratory preparation of alcohol

5.

Reaction with water
CH2 CH2 + H2O ethane H3PO4 300 ºC CH3 CH2 OH ethanol

Note :...
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